6)

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6) a) The use case is a construct that helps analysts work with users to determine system usage. A collection of use cases depicts a system in terms of what users intend to do with it. Think of a use case as a collection of scenarios about system use. The idea is to get system users involved in the early stages of system analysis and design. This increases the likelihood that the system ultimately becomes a boon to the people it’s supposed to help— instead of a monument to clever cutting-edge computing concepts that business users find incomprehensible and impossible to work with.
Applying Use Cases
Use Cases in the analysis process Grouping Use Cases Understanding the domain and users Drilling Down
b) Active Objects -Objects that own a flow of control are called active. An active object may activate a passive object for the duration of an operation by sending a message to it. Once the message has been processed, the control flow is given back to the active object. In a multitasking environment, many objects may be active simultaneously. An active object is represented by a rectangle with a thicker frame than the one used for a passive object. In some interactions, a specific object controls the flow of messages. This active object can send messages to passive
objects and interact with other active objects.
Passive Objects – Does not have a thread of control. It is represented using a normal outline for an object.
c) Component Diagram – A component that has an interface used by another component
3 Contains components, interfaces and relationships 4 Promote re use of components 5 More related to physical implementation
Deployment Diagrams
6 A diagrammatic representation of a computer resource 7 Similar to component diagram but more related to showing the physical configuration of a system possibly hardware software or network. 8 Similar to a block diagram with more details
d) Limitations
1 UML modeling is based on producing diagrams. The information conveyed by such
a model has a tendency to be incomplete, imprecise and even inconsistent.
2 Diagrams cannot express the statements that should be part of a specification.
3 Interpretation of model can be unambiguous.

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6) a) Il-każ użu hija tibni li jgħin analisti jaħdmu ma ‘utenti biex jiddeterminaw l-użu tas-sistema. Kollezzjoni ta ‘każijiet ta’ użu turi sistema f’termini ta ‘liema utenti biħsiebhom jagħmlu magħha. Aħseb ta ‘każ użu bħala ġabra ta’ xenarji dwar l-użu tas-sistema. L-idea hija li jinkiseb l-utenti tas-sistema involuti fl-istadji bikrija ta ‘analiżi tas-sistema u d-disinn. Dan iżid il-probabbiltà li s-sistema finalment isir barka lill-poplu huwa suppost li helpâ € “”minflok ta ‘monument lill-kunċetti għaqlija computing avvanzati li utenti kummerċjali jsibu inkomprensibbli u impossibbli li jaħdmu magħhom.
Japplikaw Użu Każijiet
Uża Każijiet fil-proċess ta ‘analiżi raggruppament Użu Każijiet Nifhmu l-dominju u l-utenti tat-tħaffir isfel
b) Oġġetti attivi -Objects li huma sidien ta ‘fluss ta’ kontroll huma msejħa attiv. Oġġett attiv jista ‘jattiva l-oġġett passiv għat-tul ta’ operazzjoni billi jibgħat messaġġ lilha. Ladarba l-messaġġ ikun ġie pproċessat, il-fluss ta ‘kontroll huwa mogħti lura lill-oġġett attiv. F’ambjent multitasking, bosta oġġetti jistgħu jkunu attivi fl-istess ħin. Oġġett attiv huwa rappreżentat minn rettangolu bi frejm eħxen minn dak użat għal oġġett passiva. F’xi interazzjonijiet, oġġett speċifiku jikkontrolla l-fluss ta ‘messaġġi. Dan l-oġġett attiv tista ‘tibgħat messaġġi lill passiva
oġġetti u jinteraġixxu ma ‘oġġetti attivi oħra.
Oġġetti passivi â € “”Ma jkun hemm ħajt ta ‘kontroll. Hu rappreżentat bl-użu ta ‘deskrizzjoni normali għal oġġett.
c) Komponent Dijagramma â € “”Komponent li jkollu interface użat mill komponent ieħor
3 Fih komponenti, interfaces u r-relazzjonijiet 4 Tippromwovi l-użu mill-ġdid ta ‘komponenti 5 Aktar relatati mal-implimentazzjoni fiżika
iskjerament Dijagrammi
6 Rappreżentazzjoni dijagrammatika tad-riżorsa tal-kompjuter 7 Simili għall dijagramma komponent iżda aktar relatati mal juru l-konfigurazzjoni fiżika ta ‘sistema possibbilment softwer hardware jew netwerk. 8 Simili għal dijagramma blokka ma aktar dettalji
d) Limitazzjonijiet
1 immudellar UML hija bbażata fuq il-produzzjoni dijagrammi. L-informazzjoni mgħoddija minn tali
mudell għandu tendenza li jkun kompluta, impreċiża u anke inkonsistenti.
2 Dijagrammi ma jistgħux jesprimu l-istqarrijiet li għandhom ikunu parti ta ‘speċifikazzjoni.
3 L-interpretazzjoni tar mudell jista ‘jkun ambigwu.

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6) a) Die gebruik geval is ‘n konstruk wat help ontleders werk met gebruikers te gebruik stelsel te bepaal. ‘N versameling van gebruik gevalle toon ‘n stelsel in terme van wat gebruikers van plan is om te doen met dit. Dink aan ‘n gebruik geval as ‘n versameling van scenario’s oor stelsel gebruik. Die idee is om die stelsel gebruikers wat betrokke is by die vroeë stadiums van die stelsel analise en ontwerp te kry. Dit verhoog die waarskynlikheid dat die stelsel uiteindelik word ‘n seën vir die mense dit veronderstel is om Helpa € “”in plaas van ‘n monument vir slim voorpunt-rekenaar konsepte wat besigheid gebruikers vind onverstaanbaar en onmoontlik om te werk met.
Die toepassing Use Cases
Gebruik gevalle in die analise proses Groepering Gebruik Gevalle Verstaan die domein en gebruikers Down Boor
b) aktiewe voorwerpe -materiaal wat ‘n vloei van beheer besit is aktief genoem. ‘N Aktiewe voorwerp kan ‘n passiewe voorwerp vir die duur van ‘n operasie te aktiveer deur die stuur van ‘n boodskap om dit te. Sodra die boodskap is verwerk, word die beheer vloei gegee terug na die aktiewe voorwerp. In ‘n multitasking omgewing, kan baie voorwerpe aktiewe gelyktydig wees. ‘N Aktiewe voorwerp word verteenwoordig deur ‘n reghoek met ‘n dikker raam as die een wat gebruik word vir ‘n passiewe voorwerp. In sommige interaksies, ‘n spesifieke voorwerp beheer die vloei van boodskappe. Dit aktiewe voorwerp kan boodskappe stuur aan passiewe
voorwerpe en interaksie met ander aktiewe voorwerpe.
Passiewe voorwerpe â € “”het nie ‘n draad van beheer. Dit word verteenwoordig deur ‘n normale raamwerk vir ‘n voorwerp.
c) Komponent Diagram â € “” ‘n komponent wat ‘n koppelvlak wat gebruik word deur ‘n ander komponent het
3 Bevat komponente, koppelvlakke en verhoudings 4 Bevorder re gebruik van komponente 5 meer verwant aan fisieke implementering
ontplooiing Diagramme
6 ‘n diagrammatiese voorstelling van ‘n rekenaar hulpbron 7 Net soos komponent diagram, maar meer verwant aan wat die fisiese opset van ‘n stelsel moontlik hardeware sagteware of netwerk. 8 soortgelyk aan ‘n blokdiagram met meer besonderhede
d) Beperkings
1 UML modellering is gebaseer op die vervaardiging van diagramme. Die inligting oorgedra deur sodanige
‘n model het ‘n neiging om onvolledige, vaag en selfs teenstrydig wees.
2 Diagramme kan nie die stellings wat deel van ‘n spesifikasie moet uitspreek.
3 Interpretasie van model kan ondubbelsinnig wees.

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