Communications and Security

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Sup­port trans­la­tion: http://amzn.to/1Z7d5oc
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Com­mu­nic­a­tions and Secur­ity

What is Com­mu­nic­a­tion?

People com­mu­nic­ate in vari­ous ways. Some of the ways include:
 — Dir­ect (face-to-face)
 — Print­ing
 — Tele­graph
 — Tele­phone
 — Journ­al­ism
 — Pho­to­graphy
 — Radio, TV, Inter­net etc

Com­mu­nic­a­tion helps in spread­ing val­ues, cul­ture and ideas.

Adding Value through Com­mu­nic­a­tion

Com­mu­nic­a­tion has revolu­tion­ised busi­ness. Just look at the effect that Skype has on phoning people in a dif­fer­ent con­tin­ent.

An example where com­mu­nic­a­tions have revolu­tion­ised busi­ness:

Tele­com Ire­land has a ser­vice that allows com­pan­ies to link European and Amer­ic­an call-centres togeth­er to cater for time dif­fer­ences.

Some effects of decreas­ing com­mu­nic­a­tion costs include:
 — Com­pet­i­tion will increase espe­cially between white-col­lar work­ers.
 — Edu­cated work­ers in poor coun­tries do not need to migrate as they can get same stand­ard of liv­ing.
 — Com­pan­ies want­ing to invest in devel­op­ing coun­tries have a large incent­ive to make tele­com­mu­nic­a­tions as inex­pens­ive as pos­sible.
 — The way busi­ness is done is chan­ging.
 — Reduc­tion in work-related travel.
 — Reduc­tion in costs, as employ­ees are able to work from home.
 — Increase in region­al devel­op­ment.
 — Decrease in bur­eau­cracy.
 — Crime mon­it­or­ing is easi­er.
 — Dis­tance learn­ing.
 — Bet­ter health care.
 — Bet­ter safety for old people.
 — Access­ib­il­ity on the move.

Draw­backs

Some draw­backs due to com­mu­nic­a­tion include:
 — Pri­vacy and secur­ity
 — Mon­it­or­ing of inform­a­tion is harder for mil­it­ary and police.

Busi­ness Net­work Con­fig­ur­a­tion and Net­work Man­age­ment

Import­ant terms to know are:
 — TCP/IP: Trans­port Con­trol Protocol/Internet Pro­to­col. This stand­ard defines how inform­a­tion is trans­ferred over the inter­net.
 — IP address: num­ber which iden­ti­fies com­puter over the inter­net. It is com­posed of 4 num­bers. Each num­ber has range of 0 to 255. Routers use this inform­a­tion a lot.
 — SMTP: Sim­ple Mail Trans­fer Pro­to­col. This is how mail is trans­ferred across the inter­net.

Hav­ing a net­work helps busi­nesses become more effi­cient and pro­duct­ive. Plan­ning is required to ensure that the net­work oper­ates cor­rectly. When design­ing a net­work these points should be kept in mind:
 — Shar­ing: Will people share inform­a­tion and print­ers?
 — Size: How many com­puters will use the net­work?
 — Per­form­ance: Is speed import­ant (time-crit­ic­al)?
 — Geo­graphy: Are all com­puters in 1 loc­a­tion or will you net­work with com­puters out­side the office or home?
 — Oper­at­ing Sys­tems: Which oper­at­ing sys­tems will you need to run. Is your hard­ware sup­por­ted by the OS (Oper­at­ing Sys­tem)?
 — Main­ten­ance: Will your net­work be hired by someone in the busi­ness or out­source? If you are in charge, who will be respons­ible?

When choos­ing a cli­ent net­work oper­at­ing sys­tems you must keep in mind:
 — Abil­ity to run your applic­a­tions.
 — Advanced fea­tures
 — Server cap­ab­il­it­ies
 — Train­ing and sup­port costs.

Net­work pro­to­cols encode and decode pack­ets that move across the net­work. Some examples of pro­to­cols include:
 — TCP/IP
 — IPX
 — NWlink
 — Appletalk
 — Net­BEUI
 — DLC

Net­work cabling can be:
 — Token Ring: thick, thin or twis­ted pair.
 — Token Ring: thick Eth­er­net
 — Thin Eth­er­net and twis­ted pair Eth­er­net sup­port
 — Twis­ted pair net­works

Large Net­works

Man­aging large net­works is a hard task. It is likely to have a vari­ety of hard­ware plat­forms, OS’s, con­nec­tion schemes and pro­to­cols that span coun­tries and con­tin­ents. There are tools to integ­rate 2 exist­ing net­works.

Group­ware

Group­ware is use­ful for dis­tance learn­ing and research. With group­ware people can:
 — Col­lab­or­ate on the author­ing of doc­u­ments.
 — View doc­u­ments and mark them.
 — Group­ware can be syn­chron­ous and asyn­chron­ous.

Syn­chron­ous group­ware allows:
 — Inter­activ­ity between mem­bers
 — Sim­ul­tan­eous par­ti­cip­a­tion of mem­bers.

Asyn­chron­ous group­ware:
 — facil­it­ates non-sim­ul­tan­eous com­mu­nic­a­tion
 — Mem­bers can read mes­sages when they read mail.

Shared White­boards:
 — A means of allow­ing more than 1 par­ti­cipant to view the same doc­u­ment or image.
 — They may make annota­tions using whiteboard’s draw­ing facil­it­ies.
 — Present­a­tion slides, sales fig­ures could be shared and eval­u­ated and mod­i­fied.

Shared Applic­a­tions:
 — Allow par­ti­cipants at remote sites to view and con­trol an applic­a­tion.
 — Floor con­trol: a single per­son at a time has con­trol of pro­gram.
 — Late join­ing: allows per­son to join ses­sion after it has star­ted.

Mail­ing List Servers:
 — Main­tain list of email addresses.
 — Email mes­sage is for­war­ded to all the people on list.

Coöper­at­ive Work Sys­tems
 — Basic sup­port for coöper­at­ive work
 — First class
 — Con­fer­en­cing on the web (COB)
 — Hyper­mail
 — USENET news­groups.

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Appoġġ traduzz­joni: http://amzn.to/1Z7d5oc
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Komunikazz­jon­iji­et u s-Sig­urtà

X’inhu l-komunikazz­joni?

Nies jikkomunikaw b’modi dif­fer­enti. Uħud mill-modi jinklu­du:
 — Dirett (wiċċ imb’wiċċ)
 — l-istam­par
 — Tele­graph
 — Tele­fon
 — Ġurn­aliżmu
 — Foto­grafi­ja
 — Rad­ju, tele­viż­joni, l-Inter­net eċċ

Komunikazz­joni jgħin fit-tixrid valuri, il-kul­tura u l-ideat.

Żieda tal-Valur per­mezz tal-Komunikazz­joni

Komunikazz­joni revo­lu­tion­ized-negozju. Biss ħarsa lejn l-effett li Skype għand­ha fuq ccem­pel nies fil-kontin­ent dif­fer­enti.

Eżem­pju fejn il-komunikazz­joni jkoll­hom revo­lu­tion­ized-negozju:

Tele­com Irlanda għand­ha ser­vizz li tip­per­met­ti lill-kumpan­iji biex tagħmel link-call centres Ewropej u Amerik­ani flimki­en biex jilqgħu għal dif­fer­en­zi fiż-żmi­en.

Xi effet­ti ta tnaqqis ispe­jjeż ta’ komunikazz­joni jinklu­du:
 — Kom­petizz­joni ser iżżid b’mod speċ­jali bejn ħad­diema klerikali jew ammin­is­trat­tivi.
 — Il-ħad­diema edukati f’pajjiżi foqra m’għandhomx bżonn li jemig­raw kif jist­għu jiks­bu istess liv­ell ta għa­jxi­en.
 — Kumpan­iji li jix­tiequ jin­ves­tu fil-pajjiżi li qed jiżvi­lup­paw ikoll­hom inċentiv kbir biex jagħm­lu telekomunikazz­jon­iji­et kemm rħas kemm jista jkun.
 — In-negozju mod isir qed tin­bidel.
 — Tnaqqis fl-ivvjaġġar relatat max-xogħol.
 — Tnaqqis fl-ispe­jjeż, bħala impjeg­ati jkunu jist­għu jaħd­mu mid-dar.
 — Żieda fl-iżvi­lupp reġ­jon­ali.
 — Tnaqqis fil-bur­okrazi­ja.
 — Il-mon­it­or­aġġ Krimin­al­ità huwa aktar faċli.
 — Tagħlim mill-bogħod.
 — Kura tas-saħħa aħjar.
 — Is-sig­urtà aħjar għal per­suni anzjani.
 — Aċċess­ib­il­ità fuq il-movi­ment.

żvantaġġi

Xi żvantaġġi minħab­ba l-komunikazz­joni tinkludi:
 — Il-privatezza u s-sig­urtà
 — Il-mon­it­or­aġġ ta l-inform­azz­joni huwa aktar dif­fiċli għall-skop­iji­et mil­it­ari u tal-puliz­ija.

Busi­ness Net­work Kon­fig­urazz­joni u l-Ġest­joni tan-Netwerk

ter­mini import­anti li jkunu jafu huma:
 — TCP / IP: Tras­port Kon­troll Pro­tokoll / Inter­net Pro­to­col. Dan l-istand­ard jid­definixxi kif l-inform­azz­joni tiġi trasfer­ita fuq l-inter­net.
 — L-ind­i­rizz IP: num­ru li jiden­ti­fika l-kom­pjuter fuq l-inter­net. Huwa magħmul minn 4 num­ri. Kull num­ru għan­du med­da ta ‘0 sa 255. routers jużaw din l-inform­azz­joni ħafna.
 — SMTP: Sim­ple Mail Trans­fer Pro­to­col. Dan huwa kif mail huwa trasfer­it mad­war l-inter­net.