Facility location techniques

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Facility location techniques

Several analytic techniques have been developed to assist firms in location analysis. The transportation method determines the best pattern of shipments from several points of supply (sources) to points of demand (destinations) so as to minimize total transportation and production costs. The factor weighting method assigns a weight to each location decision factor based on its importance to management. Locational break-even analysis uses the “break-even” approach for cost comparison of alternative facility location.

Locational break-even analysis:

Locational break-even analysis refers to the use of cost-volume analysis to make an economic comparison of location alternatives. By identifying fixed and variable costs and graphing them for each location, we can determine which one provides the lowest cost. Locational break-even analysis can be done mathematically or graphically. The graphic approach has the advantage of providing the range of volume over which each location is preferable.

This technique involves three steps:
determine the fixed and variable cost for each location.
plot the costs for each location, with costs on the vertical axis of the graph and annual volume on the horizontal axis.
select the location that has the lowest total cost for the expected production volume.

Factor rating method

Deciding where to locate a new facility usually includes several factors that management thinks are important. The factor rating method is popular because a variety of relevant criteria can be included in a given case. Managers can then consider the results of quantitative approaches, such as Locational break-even analysis or the transportation method, together with the more qualitative factor rating approach in making a final decision.

There are six steps in the factor rating method:
Develop a list of relevant factors (such as location, community, incentives).
Assign a weight to each factor to reflect its relative importance in the company’s objectives.
Develop a scale for each factor (e.g. 1-10 points).
Have management score each location on each factor, using the scale in step 3.
Multiply the scores times the weight based on the maximum point score, considering the results of quantitative approaches as well.


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Tekniċi faċilità

Diversi tekniċi analitiċi ġew żviluppati biex jgħinu lill-kumpaniji fl-analiżi post. Il-metodu tat-trasport jiddetermina l-aħjar mudell ta ‘vjeġġi minn diversi punti ta’ forniment (sorsi) għal punti ta ‘domanda (destinazzjonijiet) sabiex jimminimizzaw trasport u produzzjoni totali ispejjeż. Il-metodu fattur ta ‘differenzjazzjoni tassenja piż lil kull fattur deċiżjoni lokazzjoni bbażat fuq l-importanza tagħha għall-ġestjoni. Lokalizzazzjoni analiżi tal-fidi juża l-â € œbreak-evenâ approċċ € għall-paragun ispiża tal-post faċilità alternattiv.

Lokalizzazzjoni tal-fidi analiżi:

Lokalizzazzjoni analiżi tal-fidi tirreferi għall-użu ta ‘analiżi ta’ volum ispejjeż li jagħmlu paragun ekonomiku tal-alternattivi lokazzjoni. Billi jidentifikaw l-ispejjeż fissi u varjabbli u graphing minnhom għal kull post, nistgħu jiddeterminaw liema waħda tipprevedi l-inqas spejjeż. Lokalizzazzjoni analiżi tal-fidi jista ‘jsir matematikament jew grafikament. L-approċċ grafika għandha l-vantaġġ li jipprovdi l-firxa ta ‘volum li fuqha kull post huwa preferibbli.

Din it-teknika tinvolvi tliet stadji:
jiddetermina l-ispiża fissa u varjabbli għal kull post.
plot l-ispejjeż għal kull post, bl-ispejjeż fuq l-assi vertikali tal-graff u l-volum annwali fuq l-assi orizzontali.
tagħżel il-post li għandu l-ispiża totali baxx għall-volum tal-produzzjoni mistennija.

Metodu tal-klassifikazzjoni fattur

Jiddeċiedu fejn biex jillokalizza faċilità ġdida normalment jinkludi diversi fatturi li l-ġestjoni jaħseb huma importanti. Il-metodu tal-klassifikazzjoni fattur huwa popolari minħabba varjetà ta ‘kriterji rilevanti jistgħu jiġu inklużi fil f’każ partikolari. Maniġers jistgħu imbagħad jikkunsidra r-riżultati ta ‘approċċi kwantitattivi, bħalma huma l-analiżi tal-lokalità tal-fidi jew il-metodu tat-trasport, flimkien ma’ l-approċċ tal-klassifikazzjoni fattur aktar kwalitattiva fit-teħid ta ‘deċiżjoni finali.

Hemm sitt passi fl-metodu tal-klassifikazzjoni fattur:
Tiżviluppa lista ta ‘fatturi rilevanti (bħal-lokazzjoni, komunità, inċentivi).
Jassenjaw piż lil kull fattur li jirrifletti l-importanza relattiva tagħha fil-companyâ € ™ s għanijiet.
Tiżviluppa skala għal kull fattur (eż 1-10 punt).
Have ġestjoni punteġġ kull post fuq kull fattur, tuża l-iskala fil-pass 3.
Immoltiplika l-punteġġi darbiet il-piż ibbażat fuq il-punteġġ massimu punt, jikkunsidraw ir-riżultati ta ‘approċċi kwantitattivi kif ukoll.


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Fasiliteit geleë tegnieke

Verskeie analitiese tegnieke is ontwikkel om maatskappye te help om plek ontleding. Die vervoer metode bepaal die beste voorbeeld van vervoer van verskeie punte van die aanbod (bronne) om punte van die vraag (bestemmings) ten einde totale vervoer en produksiekoste te verminder. Die faktor gewig metode ken ‘n gewig aan elke plek besluit faktor gebaseer op die belangrikheid daarvan om die bestuur. Liggingsvereistes gelykbreek analise gebruik die â € œbreak-evenâ € benadering vir koste vergelyking van alternatiewe fasiliteit geleë.

Liggingsvereistes gelykbreek analise:

Liggingsvereistes gelykbreek analise verwys na die gebruik van koste-volume-analise om ‘n ekonomiese vergelyking van plek alternatiewe te maak. Deur die identifisering van vaste en veranderlike koste en grafiese hulle vir elke plek, kan ons bepaal watter een bied die laagste koste. Liggingsvereistes gelykbreek analise kan wiskundig of grafies gedoen. Die grafiese benadering het die voordeel van die verskaffing van die omvang van die volume waaroor elke plek is verkieslik.

Hierdie tegniek behels drie stappe:
bepaal die vaste en veranderlike koste vir elke plek.
plot die koste vir elke plek, met koste op die vertikale as van die grafiek en jaarlikse volume op die horisontale as.
Kies die plek wat die laagste totale koste vir die verwagte produksie volume het.

Faktor gradering metode

Besluit waar om ‘n nuwe fasiliteit op te spoor sluit gewoonlik ‘n paar faktore wat bestuur dink is belangrik. Die faktor gradering metode is baie gewild as gevolg van ‘n verskeidenheid van relevante kriteria kan ingesluit word in ‘n gegewe geval. Bestuurders kan dan kyk na die resultate van kwantitatiewe benaderings, soos vir Ligging gelykbreek analise of die vervoer metode, saam met die meer kwalitatiewe faktor gradering benadering in ‘n finale besluit.

Daar is ses stappe in die faktor gradering metode:
Ontwikkel ‘n lys van relevante faktore (soos ligging, gemeenskap, aansporings).
Ken ‘n gewig aan elke faktor tot sy relatiewe belangrikheid in die companyâ € ™ s doelwitte weerspieël.
Ontwikkel ‘n skaal vir elke faktor (bv 1-10 punte).
Het bestuur telling elke plek op elke faktor, met behulp van die skaal in stap 3.
Vermenigvuldig die tellings keer die gewig wat gebaseer is op die maksimum punt telling, met inagneming van die resultate van kwantitatiewe benaderings asook.