Information communication technology and market information systems

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Inform­a­tion com­mu­nic­a­tion tech­no­logy and mar­ket inform­a­tion sys­tems

Mar­ket­ing decisions are taken on a con­tinu­ous basis and hence inform­a­tion is con­stantly required to enable man­age­ment to take such decisions. A con­tinu­ous source of inform­a­tion is required for con­trol pur­poses. A mar­ket­ing inform­a­tion sys­tem (MKIS) meets these needs.

It is help­ful to see the MKIS as com­pris­ing all com­puter and non-com­puter sys­tems which can help the mar­keter. An MKIS is built up from sev­er­al dif­fer­ent sys­tems which may not dir­ectly be related to mar­ket­ing. These will con­tain:

- Intern­al reports sys­tem which provides:

o Res­ults data;

o Meas­ures of cur­rent per­form­ance;

o Sales, cost and stock inform­a­tion.

- The mar­ket­ing intel­li­gence sys­tem does the fol­low­ing:

o Provides hap­pen­ings data;

o Provides inform­a­tion on devel­op­ment in the envir­on­ment;

o Scans and dis­sem­in­ates a wide range of intel­li­gence.

A mar­ket­ing intel­li­gence sys­tem is a set of pro­ced­ures and sources used by man­agers to obtain every­day inform­a­tion about per­tin­ent devel­op­ments in the mar­ket­ing envir­on­ment.

Data col­lec­ted has to pro­duce coher­ent inform­a­tion.

- The sys­tem allows for easy and effect­ive stor­age and retriev­al of data and so con­sid­er­a­tion must be given to:

o Manu­al or com­pu­ter­ised;

o The extent of hard copy back up;

o Cross ref­er­en­cing of data;

o Data pro­tec­tion legis­la­tion con­sid­er­a­tions.

- Irrel­ev­ant data must be elim­in­ated.

- Dis­sem­in­a­tion of inform­a­tion include the fol­low­ing:

o Who needs to/should receive inform­a­tion;

o The use of news­let­ters for stand­ard­ised reg­u­lar inform­a­tion;

o How much value is added by the sys­tem?

The cost and organ­isa­tion­al implic­a­tions of an MKIS include:

- Train­ing of exist­ing and new staff will be neces­sary;

- Staff with spe­cial­ist skills might have to be recruited so job spe­cific­a­tions and spe­cific­a­tions will have to be changed;

- Organ­isa­tion­al con­sid­er­a­tions will prob­ably include a real­loc­a­tion of duties.

When an MKIS is being developed, the fol­low­ing factors should be con­sidered:

- Users must under­stand the sys­tems and be in a pos­i­tion to eval­u­ate and con­trol them;

- The sys­tem must be reg­u­larly reviewed and feed­back improved;

- The true mean­ing of the inform­a­tion provided must be cla­ri­fied;

- The MKIS must be flex­ible;

- A sys­tem is as effect­ive as design­ers and users make it.

The fea­tures of an effect­ive MKIS

An MKIS must do the fol­low­ing:

- Provide man­agers with real time inform­a­tion on how cus­tom­ers and staff per­ceive the ser­vices being given, since what is not meas­ured can’t be man­aged;

- Meas­ure qual­ity of ser­vice and cus­tom­er care to provide evid­ence that they do mat­ter, the implic­a­tion because what is seen to be meas­ured gets done;

- Mon­it­or how the cus­tom­er base is chan­ging;

- Provide a basis on which bonus pay­ments can be determ­ined, because what gets paid for gets done even bet­ter.

Data and inform­a­tion about cus­tom­er data may be gathered in many ways but sys­tems design cri­ter­ia are import­ant:

- Management’s access to inform­a­tion must be easy and dir­ect;

- The cost of inform­a­tion should be min­im­al;

- Data gath­er­ing should be low intens­ity;

- Data gath­er­ing should be reg­u­lar and con­tinu­ous.

The com­pon­ents of a com­pu­ter­ised MKIS

- A data bank will store data;

- A stat­ist­ic­al pro­gram will store pro­grams for car­ry­ing out com­pu­ta­tions;

- A mod­el bank will store mar­ket­ing mod­els for plan­ning and ana­lys­is;

- A dis­play unit will allow the user to com­mu­nic­ate with the MKIS.


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tekno­loġi­ja tal-inform­azz­jonitas-suq sis­temi ta inform­azz­joni

 

deċiż­jon­iji­et Mar­ket­ing jit­tieħ­du fuq bażi kontin­wa u għal­hekk l-inform­azz­joni hija dejjem meħtieġa sabiex ikun hemm ġest­joni li jieħ­du deċiż­jon­iji­et bħal dawn. Sors kontin­wu ta inform­azz­joni hija meħtieġa għall-fin­iji­et ta’ kon­troll. Sis­tema ta inform­azz­joni tas-suq (MKIS) jissod­isfa dawn il-ħtiġiji­et.

 

Huwa utli li wieħed jara l-MKIS bħala li jinkludi l-sis­temi koll­ha tal-kom­pjuter u mhux tal-kom­pjuter li jist­għu jgħinu l-negoz­jant. L MKIS hija mib­n­i­ja minn diver­si sis­temi dif­fer­enti li ma jist­għux ikunu direttament relata­ti mal-kum­merċjalizza­zz­joni. Dawn se jinklu­du:

- Rap­porti Intern sis­tema li tip­provdi:

o id-data Riżultati;

o Miżuri ta prestazz­joni kur­renti;

Bejgħ o, spe­jjeż u inform­azz­joni istokk.

 

- Is-sis­tema ta intel­liġen­za tas-suq ma dan li ġej:

o Jip­provdi dejta hap­pen­ings;

o Tip­provdi tagħrif dwar l-iżvi­lupp fl-amb­jent;

o skan­iji­et u jxerred firxa wiesa ta’ intel­liġen­za.

 

A sis­tema ta intel­liġen­za tas-suq huwa sett ta’ proċed­uri u sor­si użati mill-maniġers biex jiks­bu inform­azz­joni ta kuljum dwar l-iżvi­lup­pi per­tin­enti fl-amb­jent tas-suq.

 

Id-dejta miġbura għand­ha tip­produċi inform­azz­joni koer­enti.

- Is-sis­tema tip­per­met­ti għall-ħażna faċli u effet­tiv u ġbied tad-data u għal­hekk kon­sid­erazz­joni għand­ha tingħata għal:

o Man­wal jew kom­pju­ter­izzata;

o Il-firxa ta kop­ja stam­pata back-up;

o Salib ref­er­en­zar ta data;

o kon­sid­erazz­jon­iji­et leġiżlazz­joni Pro­tezz­joni tad-data.

 

- Id-data Irril­evanti għan­du jiġi elim­in­at.

- Tixrid ta tagħrif jinklu­du dan li ġej:

o Li jeħtieġ li / għand­hom jirċievu inform­azz­joni;

o L-użu ta news­let­ters għal inform­azz­joni regolari stand­ardizzata;

o Kemm ħafna fil-valur huwa miżjud mis-sis­tema?

 

L-imp­likazz­jon­iji­et tal-ispe­jjeż u organizzat­tivi ta ‘MKIS jinklu­du:

- It-taħriġ tal-istaff eżist­enti u dak ġdid se tkun meħtieġa;

- Per­sunal b’ħiliet speċ­jalizza­ti jista jkollu jiġi reklutat hekk ispeċi­fikazz­jon­iji­et tax-xogħol u l-ispeċifikazz­jon­iji­et se jkoll­hom jin­bid­lu;

- Kun­sid­erazz­jon­iji­et organizzat­tivi probab­bil­ment se jinkludi allokazz­joni mill-ġdid tad-dazji.

 

Meta MKIS qed tiġi żvi­lup­pata, għand­hom jiġu kkun­sidrati l-fat­turi li ġejjin:

- L-utenti jridu jif­h­mu s-sis­temi u jkunu f’pożizzjoni li jeval­waw u kkon­trol­lati;

- Is-sis­tema għand­ha tiġi rive­duta regolar­ment u l-feed­back mte­jba;

- It-tif­sira vera tal-inform­azz­joni pprov­duta għand­ha tiġi ċċarata;

- L MKIS għand­ha tkun fless­ib­bli;

- Sis­tema hi effet­tiva daqs dis­in­jaturi u l-utenti jagħm­lu dan.

 

Il-kar­at­ter­istiċi ta ‘MKIS effet­tiv

 

L MKIS trid tagħmel dan li ġej:

- Jip­prov­du man­iġers b’informazzjoni f’ħin reali dwar kif il-klijentil-per­sunal jip­per­ċepixxu s-ser­vizzi li qed jingħataw, peress li dak li ma jkunx imke­jjel cana € ™ t tkun ġestita;

- Il-kwal­ità Miżura ta ser­vizz u cus­tom­er care li jagħti evid­en­za li dawn ma jim­pur­tax, l-imp­likazz­joni għaliex dak li jid­her li jkun jitke­jjel, isir;

- Tis­sorvel­ja kif il-klijen­tela qed tin­bidel;

- Li tiġi pprov­duta bażi li fuqha ħlasiji­et tal-bonus jista jiġi determ­in­at, għaliex dak gets mħall­sa għall isir anki aħjar.

 

Id-dejtal-inform­azz­joni dwar id-data tal-klijent tista tiġi miġbura f’ħafna modi iżda s-sis­temi kriterji tad-disinn huma import­anti:

- Man­age­mentâ € ™ s aċċess għall-inform­azz­joni għan­du jkun faċli u dirett;

- L-ispiża ta tagħrif għand­hom ikunu min­imi;

- Ġbir tad-data għan­du jkun intens­ità baxxa;

- Ġbir tad-data għand­hom ikunu regolari u kontin­wa.

 

Il-kom­pon­enti ta ‘MKIS kom­pju­ter­izzata

 

- A data bank se taħżen data;

- Pro­gramm stat­istiku se taħżen pro­gram­mi biex isiru l-kom­putazz­jon­iji­et;

- Mudell A bank se taħżen mudel­li mar­ket­ing għall-ippjanarl-analiżi;

- A unità tal-wiri se jip­per­mettu lill-utent li jikkomunikaw ma l-MKIS.


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http://amzn.to/2kgnzrf: hierdie onder­steun­ing
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Inligt­ing kom­munikasie tegno­lo­gie en die mark inligt­ing­stelsels

 

Bemark­ing besluite gen­eem word op n deur­lo­pende basis en dus inligt­ing is voortdurend nodig om bestuur in staat stel om sulke besluite te neem. N Deur­lo­pende bron van inligt­ing is nodig vir kon­trole­doeleindes. N bemark­ing inligt­ing­stelsel (MKIS) aan hierdie behoeft­es.