Lecture 2

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Lecture 2

The Concept of the Right of Ownership Articles 320 – 327
The traditional notion of ownership has been that the owner has the absolute and uncontrolled right over the object owned provided that no use of the thing owned is done which is contrary to the law. Therefore the character of ownership whether it was of movable or immovable property was the right to enjoy and the right to dispose of the thing.
Such right was traditionally exercised in the most absolute manner. It also meant that the owner was entitled to abandon the thing and there exists in civil law, what is known as acquisited prescription which means that if a person possesses an object for a period of time as required by law, the ownership of such thing will be acquired therefore if an owner abandons a thing he owns and the possession of such thing is taken over by someone else, then such third party may after the lapse of a period of time acquire ownership instead of the original owner.
The traditional knowledge of ownership traditionally had the character of perpetuity
(not limited by time). However of recent years, there have been very significant
limitations on this absolute concept of ownership.
Today it is acknowledged that ownership has also it’s social dimension.

Social concept relevant in the right of ownership
Today there is what is known as the concept of proper use and abuse of one’s rights. There is also the concept of good neighbourliness. The difficulty in practice arises on how to determine the extent of inconvenience that is to be suffered by the neighbours due to the development or exercise of the right of ownership. It is clear today that the owner has to show that he is deriving a tangible benefit from the use of the property therefore a development that is capricious (it is done simply for sake of it without benefit being derived from it) or simply to spy the neighbours is not accepted. The owner must also use similar precautions to minimize the inconvenience caused to the neighbours.
Planning and Environment legislation
Areas are today’s zones and also there is an important and valuable limitation that use is regulated by the authorities. E.g. you cannot make a garage a shop without approval.
Finally today we accept that different forms of ownership exist from the time point of view referring to time-shared legislation which allows you ownership for E.g. 2 weeks a year for 30 years of a yacht.
Expropriation
This means that land or immovable property or buildings may be acquired by the government for a public purpose and against payment for compensation. The problem with the extent of compensation is that the criteria do not always match market value of property. There is always controversy and litigation on the amount of compensation awarded. Inherent in the right or ownership is the right of the owner to recover the object from any possessor. Of course in similar situations, the owner will have to prove absolute title and the civil law regulates in detail how title to property is acquired.
The ownership of an immovable carries with it, ownership of the space above and below including the space under the land. However this does not apply in situations where an immovable property neither assumes the airspace or space below such as an apartment forming part of a block.
Also the ownership of land from civil point of view entitles the owner to build, plant, excavate with planning requirements and also excavation carries with it certain obligations.
There exists a presumption that all construction or work which is carried out on a land or property has been carried out by the owner and belongs to the owner. The owner has the right to compel the neighbour to fix the boundaries of the properties by means of marks which are visible and permanent. Also there is the right of the owner to enclose his property.
Usufruct Articles 328 – 399
This term is derived from the old Roman law where they have the usus (use) and the fructus (enjoyment), hence we get the term usufruct. Usufruct means right to make use of and enjoy a thing owned by a third party. E.g. situations of inheritance. Surviving spouse is not called to the inheritance since the heirs are the children but the usufruct i.e. the use and enjoyment of the estate of the deceased vests in the surviving spouse.
Usufruct can happen either by operation of law, or through deed or will. If however it refers to immovable property it requires registration in the various registries related to land.

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lecture 2

Il-Kunċett tal-jedd ta ‘proprjetà Artikoli 320 â € “”327
Il-kunċett tradizzjonali ta ‘sjieda kienet li s-sid għandu d-dritt assolut u bla kontroll fuq l-oġġett huwa proprjetà privata sakemm l-ebda użu tal-ħaġa proprjetà isir li jmur kontra l-liġi. Għalhekk il-karattru tal-pussess jekk kienx ta ‘proprjetà mobbli jew immobbli kien id-dritt li jgawdu u d-dritt li jiddisponi mill-ħaġa.
Tali dritt kien tradizzjonalment eżerċita bl-aktar mod assolut. Dan kien ifisser ukoll li s-sid kien intitolat biex jabbandunaw il-ħaġa u teżisti fil-liġi ċivili, dak li hu magħruf bħala preskrizzjoni acquisited li jfisser li jekk persuna jkollha oġġett għal perjodu ta ‘żmien kif meħtieġ bil-liġi, is-sjieda ta’ tali ħaġa se jiġu akkwistati għalhekk jekk sid jabbanduna xi ħaġa li jipposjedi u l-pussess ta ‘dik il-ħaġa hija meħuda minn xi ħadd ieħor, allura dik il-parti terza tista’, wara l-iskadenza ta ‘perijodu ta’ sjieda jakkwistaw żmien minflok il-proprjetarju oriġinali.
L-għarfien tradizzjonali ta ‘sjieda tradizzjonalment kellu l-karattru ta’ al dejjem
(Mhux limitata mill-ħin). Madankollu tas-snin reċenti, kien hemm sinifikanti ħafna
limitazzjonijiet fuq dan il-kunċett assolut ta ‘proprjetà.
Illum huwa rikonoxxut li s-sjieda għandha wkoll ita € ™ s dimensjoni soċjali.

kunċett Soċjali rilevanti fid-dritt ta ‘proprjetà
Illum hemm dak li hu magħruf bħala l-kunċett ta ‘użu xieraq u l-abbuż ta’ oneâ € ™ s drittijiet. Hemm ukoll il-kunċett ta ‘viċinanza tajba. Id-diffikultà fil-prattika tqum dwar kif jiġi stabbilit il-limitu ta ‘inkonvenjenza li għandha mġarrba mill-ġirien minħabba l-iżvilupp jew l-eżerċizzju tad-dritt ta’ proprjetà. Huwa ċar illum li l-proprjetarju għandu juri li hu ma tibbenefikax tanġibbli mill-użu tal għaldaqstant proprjetà ta ‘żvilupp li huwa arbitrarja (dan isir sempliċement għall-finijiet ta’ dan mingħajr ma benefiċċju li ġej minn dan) jew sempliċiment biex spy l ġirien mhix aċċettata. Is-sid għandu juża wkoll prekawzjonijiet simili biex jimminimizzaw l-inkonvenjenza kkawżata lill-ġirien.
Ippjanar u l-leġiżlazzjoni ambjentali
Oqsma huma ntejjbu € ™ s żoni u wkoll hemm limitazzjoni importanti u ta ‘valur li jużaw huwa rregolat mill-awtoritajiet. Eż inti ma tistax tagħmel garaxx ħanut mingħajr l-approvazzjoni.
Fl-aħħarnett illum naċċettaw li forom differenti ta ‘sjieda jeżistu mill-punt mument di vista jirreferi għal-leġiżlazzjoni maqsuma time li tippermetti li inti s-sjieda għall E.ż. 2 ġimgħat fis-sena għal 30 sena ta ‘yacht.
esproprjazzjoni
Dan ifisser li l-art jew proprjetà immobbli jew bini jistgħu jiġu akkwistati mill-gvern għal skop pubbliku u bi ħlas għal kumpens. Il-problema bil-portata tal-kumpens huwa li l-kriterji mhux dejjem jaqblu mal-valur tas-suq tal-proprjetà. Dejjem hemm kontroversja u litigazzjoni dwar l-ammont ta ‘kumpens mogħti. Inerenti fil-dritt jew proprjetà huwa d-dritt tas-sid li tirkupra l-oġġett minn kwalunkwe pussessur. Naturalment f’sitwazzjonijiet simili, is-sid trid tipprova titolu assolut u l-liġi ċivili tirregola fid-dettall kif titolu għall-proprjetà tkun akkwistata.
Il-pussess ta ‘immobbli iġorr miegħu, is-sjieda tal-ispazju fuq u taħt inkluż l-ispazju taħt l-art. Madankollu, dan ma japplikax f’sitwazzjonijiet fejn il-proprjetà immobbli la tassumi ispazju tal-ajru jew l-ispazju ta ‘hawn taħt, bħal parti appartament li jifforma minn blokk.
Ukoll l-proprjetà ta ‘art mill-punt ċivili di vista jintitola lill-proprjetarju biex jibnu, pjanti, excavate mar-rekwiżiti tal-ippjanar u wkoll tħaffir jġorr miegħu ċerti obbligi.
Teżisti preżunzjoni li kollox kostruzzjoni jew xogħol li jsir fuq l-art jew proprjetà ikun sar mis-sid u tappartjeni lis-sid. Is-sid għandu d-dritt li ġġiegħel lill-proxxmu li tiffissa l-limiti tal-proprjetajiet permezz ta ‘marki li huma viżibbli u permanenti. Ukoll hemm id-dritt tas-sid li jehmżu proprjetà tiegħu.
Artikoli użufrutt 328 â € “”399
Dan it-terminu huwa derivat mil-liġi Rumana antika fejn għandhom l-usus (użu) u l-fructus (tgawdija), għalhekk irridu jiksbu l-użufrutt tul. Użufrutt tfisser dritt li jagħmel użu minn u jgawdu xi ħaġa proprjetà ta ‘parti terza. Eż sitwazzjonijiet ta ‘wirt. Konjuġi superstiti ma jissejjaħx biex il-wirt peress li l-eredi huma t-tfal iżda l-użufrutt jiġifieri l-użu u t-tgawdija tal-patrimonju ta ‘l-vests mejtin fil-konjuġi superstiti.
Użufrutt jista ‘jiġri jew b’operat ta’ liġi, jew permezz ta ‘att jew se. Jekk madankollu hija tirreferi għall-proprjetà immobbli li teħtieġ reġistrazzjoni fir-reġistri varji relatati mal-art.

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