Lecture 2

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Lecture 2
Software Metrics
Book: Software Engineering by Roger E.Brasman
Why Software Metrics?
1 Effective management of any process requires quantification, measurement and modelling.
2 Software metrics do provide a quantitative basis for the development and validation of models of the software development process.
3 Metrics can be used to improve productivity and quality.
4 Results with metrics improve the more the metric is used and fine tuned.
Software Crisis Problems
1 Inability to produce correct and reliable software, within given time frames and a given budget.
2 Software development for large projects is inherently a complex process.
3 There is no proper analytical description for software development.
4 Use of software metrics will help to improve the development process.
Case of Software Metrics
1 Many metrics have been created.
2 Some have not been properly tested.
3 It is difficult to identify which properties of software will be measured
2 Even though many theoretical metrics exist, few are really acceptable in
practice. 3 When using metrics, it is important to understand any underlying assumptions and the environment of application.
Prerequisites for using software metrics
1 One should have an idea of basic statistics and experimental design.
2 One should understand the common software development life cycle model.
3. Ideally one should have practical experience as a project team member. Why? Because one has to know which methods are available and how to select the best metric. Possible measures of correlation, best fit etc are all possible.
Definition of a Software Metric
“ A software metric deals with the measurement of the software product and the process by which it is developed “.
The software product needs to be seen as an abstract object that evolves from an initial requirement of the need to finish a software system. The software product includes the source and object code, and documentation produced during the development.
Need for Software Metrics
1 Software development is a long and tedious process
2 Accurate costing and project scheduling are needed
3 Software management needs tangible measures
4 Metrics used properly will help prevent software crisis.
Qualities of good metrics
1 Simple, precise and definable
2 Objective to the most possible extent
3 Easily obtainable at a cheap cost
4 Valid: i.e. the metric should measure exactly it’s intended purpose
5 Robust: i.e. insignificant changes in the product should not affect it!!
6 Have data values that belong to appropriate measurement scales e.g. months, weeks, effort in man days etc.
Classification of Software Metrics
1 Product Metrics: These are measures of the software product at any stage if it’s development, from requirements to installed system. Product metrics measure the complexity of the software design, final program size (source/object code), number of documentation pages produced.
E.g. COCOMO, LOC, KLOC, defects/KLOC etc.
2 Process Metrics: These are measures of the software development process e.g. development time, average level of programming experience.
Further Classification
3 Primitive metrics
4 Computer metrics
5 Subjective
6 Objective
E.g. Primitive subjective product metrics
E.g. of compound metric defects/KLOC
COCOMO
Basic COCOMO Intermediate Advanced
Function Points Raleigh Model

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lecture 2
Metrics software
Book: Software Engineering minn Roger E.Brasman
Għaliex software Metrics?
1 Ġestjoni effettiva ta ‘kwalunkwe proċess jeħtieġ kwantifikazzjoni, il-kejl u mmudellar.
2 metriċi Software do jipprovdu bażi kwantitattiva għall-iżvilupp u l-validazzjoni ta ‘mudelli tal-proċess ta’ żvilupp ta ‘softwer.
3 Metrics jistgħu jintużaw biex itejbu l-produttività u l-kwalità.
4 Riżultati mal metriċi itejbu iktar il-metrika hija użata u rraffinati.
Softwer Problemi Kriżi
1 Inabbilità li jipproduċu softwer korretta u affidabbli, f’termini ta ‘żmien mogħti u baġit partikolari.
2 Żvilupp ta ‘softwer għall-proġetti kbar ta huwa minnu nnifsu proċess kumpless.
3. M’hemm l-ebda deskrizzjoni analitika xierqa għall-iżvilupp ta ‘softwer.
4 L-użu ta ‘metriċi softwer se tgħin biex ittejjeb il-proċess ta’ żvilupp.
F’każ ta ‘Metrics Software
1 Ħafna metriċi ġew maħluqa.
2 Xi ma ġewx ittestjati b’mod xieraq.
3. Huwa diffiċli li jiġu identifikati liema proprjetajiet ta ‘softwer se jitkejjel
2. Anki jekk jeżistu metriċi teoretiċi ħafna, ftit huma verament aċċettabbli fil
prattika. 3. Meta tintuża metriċi, huwa importanti li wieħed jifhem xi suppożizzjonijiet sottostanti u l-ambjent ta ‘applikazzjoni.
Prerekwiżiti għall-użu metriċi softwer
1 Wieħed għandu jkollok idea ta ‘statistika bażika u d-disinn sperimentali.
2. Wieħed għandu jifhem l-iżvilupp tas-software mudell komuni ċiklu tal-ħajja.
3. Idealment wieħed għandu jkollu esperjenza prattika bħala membru tat-tim tal-proġett. Għaliex? Minħabba li wieħed irid ikun jaf liema metodi huma disponibbli u kif jagħżel l-aħjar metrika. Miżuri possibbli ta ‘korrelazzjoni, l-aħjar eċċ tajbin huma kollha possibbli.
Definizzjoni ta ‘software metrika
â € œ A tittratta metrika ta ‘softwer ma’ il-kejl tal-prodott tas-softwer u l-proċess li bih huwa żviluppat â € œ.
Il-prodott tas-softwer jeħtieġ li titqies bħala oġġett astratt li tevolvi minn rekwiżit inizzjali tal-ħtieġa biex jintemm sistema ta ‘softwer. Il-prodott tas-softwer jinkludi s-sors u object code, u d-dokumentazzjoni prodotta matul l-iżvilupp.
Ħtieġa għal Metrics Software
1 Żvilupp ta ‘softwer huwa proċess twil u tedjuż
2 jiswew Preċiża u l-iskedar tal-proġett huma meħtieġa
3. ġestjoni Software teħtieġ miżuri tanġibbli
4 Metrics tintuża kif jixraq se jgħinu jipprevjenu kriżi softwer.
Kwalitajiet ta ‘metriċi tajba
1 Sempliċi, preċiżi u definibbli
2 Għan sa fejn l-aktar possibbli
3 Faċilment tista ‘tinkiseb bi prezz irħis
4 Validu: jiġifieri l-metrika għandha tkejjel eżattament ita € ™ s għan maħsub
5 robusti: bidliet insinifikanti jiġifieri fil-prodott m’għandux jaffettwa dan !!
6 Iddaħħlu l-valuri ta ‘dejta li jappartjenu għal xierqa skali ta’ kejl eż xhur, ġimgħat, l-isforz f’jiem bniedem, eċċ
Klassifikazzjoni ta ‘Metrics Software
1 Metrics Prodott: Dawn huma miżuri tal-prodott tas-softwer fi kwalunkwe stadju jekk ita € ™ s iżvilupp, mill-ħtiġiet għas-sistema installata. metriċi tal-prodott jitkejjel il-kumplessità tad-disinn tas-software, daqs il-programm finali (sors / kodiċi oġġett), in-numru ta ‘paġni ta’ dokumentazzjoni prodotta.
Eż COCOMO, LOC, KLOC, difetti / KLOC eċċ
2 Metrics Proċess: Dawn huma miżuri ta ‘l-proċess ta’ żvilupp ta ‘softwer eż iżvilupp ta ‘żmien, il-livell medju ta’ esperjenza ta ‘programmazzjoni.
aktar Klassifikazzjoni
3 metriċi primitive
4 metriċi Kompjuter
5 suġġettiva
6 Għan
Eż metriċi primitive prodott suġġettivi
Eż difetti metrika ta komposti / KLOC
COCOMO
Bażiku COCOMO Intermedju Avvanzat
Funzjoni Punti Mudell Raleigh

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Lecture 4

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Lecture 4
General Equations for COCOMO
1 E = AS^BM
2 A, B are constants determined for each mode and mode level.
3 S is the value of the source LOC
4 M is a composite multiplier, determined from 15 cost driver attributes
COCOMO
COCOMO cost estimation model is used by thousands of software project managers, and is based on a study of hundreds of software projects. Unlike other cost estimation models, COCOMO is an open model, so all of the details are published, including:
1 The underlying cost estimation equations 2 Every assumption made in the model (E.g. the project will enjoy good “management”) 3 Every definition (E.g. the precise definition of the product design phase of a project) 4 The costs included in an estimate are explicitly stated (E.g. project managers are included, secretaries aren’t).
COCOMO
The fundamental calculation in the COCOMO model is the use of the effort equation to estimate the number of person-months required to develop a project.
The other COCOMO results, including the estimates for requirements and maintenance are derived from this quantity.
Why COCOMO II?
1 COCOMO II is better adapted to modern software life cycles. 2 The original COCOMO model has been very successful, but it doesn’t apply to newer software development practices. 3 The original COCOMO was well suited to traditional practices.
Complexity Metrics
1 Complexity Metrics are not the same as Size Metrics
2 Complexity Metrics can be measured early in the software development life cycle.
3 Complexity Metrics are more complex than Size Metrics
Cyclomatic Complexity
1 From a computer program it’s control flow graph G can be derived.
2 Each node and arc of the graph corresponds to a branch or decision point in the program.
3 Using V(G) = E – N + 2 where E is the number of edges and N the number of nodes, we can derive V(G) i.e. the Cyclomatic complexity.
4 McCabe suggests that V(G) can be used to measure program complexity. Hence it is a guide for program development and testing.
Knots
1 This concept is related to drawing the program control flow graph with a node for every statement of block of sequential statements
2 A knot is then defined as a necessary crossing of directional lines of the graph
3 The Cyclomatic complexity does not flow accordingly
Informational Flow Metric
1 Informational flow in a program structure can be used as a metric for program complexity.
2 Basically one counts the number of information flows entering (fan-in) and exiting (fan-out) of each procedure
3 Procedure’s complexity is C = [procedure length] * [fan-in + fan-out]^2 1 This is a very simple metric

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lecture 4
Ekwazzjonijiet ġenerali għall COCOMO
1 E = KIF ^ BM
2 A, B huma kostanti stabbiliti għal kull livell modalità modalità u.
3. S huwa l-valur tas-sors l-LOC
4 M hija multiplikatur kompost, iddeterminata mill-attributi tas-sewwieq 15-ispiża
COCOMO
COCOMO mudell stima tan-nefqa huwa użat mill-eluf ta ‘maniġers tal-proġett tas-softwer, u hija bbażata fuq studju ta’ mijiet ta ‘proġetti ta’ softwer. B’differenza mudelli oħra ta ‘stima l-ispiża, COCOMO huwa mudell miftuħ, sabiex kollha tal-dettalji huma ppubblikati, inklużi:
1 L-istima ispiża sottostanti ekwazzjonijiet 2 Kull suppożizzjoni magħmula fil-mudell (Eż il-proġett ser igawdu tajba â € œmanagementâ €) 3 Kull definizzjoni (Eż-definizzjoni preċiża tal-fażi tad-disinn tal-prodott ta ‘proġett) 4 L-ispejjeż inklużi fid stima ikunu dikjarati espliċitament (maniġers tal-proġett Eż huma inklużi, segretarji arena € ™ t).
COCOMO
Il-kalkolu fundamentali fil-mudell COCOMO huwa l-użu tal-ekwazzjoni isforz biex jistmaw l-għadd ta ‘xhur persuna meħtieġa biex jiġi żviluppat proġett.
Ir-riżultati l-oħra COCOMO, inklużi l-estimi għall-ħtiġiet u l-manutenzjoni huma derivati minn din il-kwantità.
Għaliex COCOMO II?
1 COCOMO II huwa adattat aħjar għaċ-ċikli moderni tal-ħajja tas-softwer. 2. Il-mudell COCOMO oriġinali kienet suċċess kbir, iżda doesnâ € ™ t tapplika għal prattiċi ġodda ta ‘żvilupp ta’ softwer. 3. L-COCOMO oriġinali kienet adattat tajjeb għall-prattiċi tradizzjonali.
kumplessità Metrics
1 Kumplessità Metrics mhumiex l-istess bħal Metrics Daqs
2 Metrics Kumplessità jista ‘jitkejjel kmieni fil-ċiklu tal-ħajja żvilupp ta’ softwer.
3. Kumplessità Metrics huma aktar kumplessi minn Metrics Daqs
Kumplessità Cyclomatic
1 Minn programm tal-kompjuter ita € ™ s fluss kontroll graff G jista ‘jiġi derivat.
2 Kull node u ark tal-graff jikkorrispondi għal punt fergħa jew deċiżjoni fil-programm.
3 Jużaw V (G) = E â € “”N + 2 fejn E huwa n-numru ta ‘truf u N in-numru ta’ punti strateġiċi, nistgħu jiksbu V (G) jiġifieri l-kumplessità Cyclomatic.
4 McCabe jissuġġerixxi li V (G) jista ‘jintuża biex ikejjel kumplessità programm. Għalhekk huwa gwida għall-programm ta ‘żvilupp u ttestjar.
knots
1 Dan il-kunċett huwa relatat mal tinġibed l-fluss graff kontroll programm bil-node għal kull dikjarazzjoni ta ‘blokk ta’ dikjarazzjonijiet sekwenzjali
2 A ngroppi huwa mbagħad definit bħala qsim meħtieġ ta ‘linji direzzjonali tal-graff
3. Il-kumplessità Cyclomatic ma fluss xieraq
Informatorja Fluss Metriċi
1 fluss informatorja fi struttura programm jista ‘jintuża bħala metrika għal kumplessità programm.
2. Bażikament wieħed jgħodd in-numru ta ‘informazzjoni li dieħla (-fann fil) u l-ħruġ (fann-out) ta’ kull proċedura
3 Procedureâ € ™ s kumplessità huwa Ċ = [proċedura Tul] * [fann fil +-fann out] ^ 2 1 Din hija metrika sempliċi ħafna

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lesing 4
Algemene vergelykings vir COCOMO
1 E = AS ^ BM
2 A, B konstantes bepaal vir elke modus en modus vlak.
3 S is die waarde van die bron LOC
4 M is ‘n saamgestelde vermenigvuldiger, wat van 15 kostedrywer eienskappe
COCOMO
COCOMO kosteberaming model is wat gebruik word deur duisende van sagteware projekbestuurders, en is gebaseer op ‘n studie van honderde sagteware projekte. In teenstelling met ander koste beraming modelle, COCOMO is ‘n oop model, sodat al die besonderhede verskyn, insluitend:
1 Die onderliggende kosteskatting vergelykings 2 Elke aanname gemaak in die model (byvoorbeeld die projek sal geniet goeie â € œmanagementâ €) 3 Elke definisie (byvoorbeeld die presiese definisie van die produk ontwerp fase van ‘n projek) 4 Die koste ingesluit in ‘n skatting word uitdruklik vermeld (bv projekbestuurders is ingesluit, sekretarisse arena € ™ t).
COCOMO
Die fundamentele berekening in die COCOMO model is die gebruik van die poging vergelyking met die aantal persoon-maande nodig om ‘n projek te ontwikkel skat.
Die ander COCOMO resultate, insluitend die skattings vir vereistes en instandhouding is afgelei van hierdie hoeveelheid.
Hoekom COCOMO II?
1 COCOMO II is beter aangepas vir die moderne sagteware lewensiklusse. 2 Die oorspronklike COCOMO model is baie suksesvol, maar dit doesnâ € ™ t van toepassing op nuwe sagteware-ontwikkeling praktyke. 3 Die oorspronklike COCOMO was uiters geskik vir tradisionele praktyke.
kompleksiteit Statistieke
1 Kompleksiteit statistieke is nie dieselfde as Grootte Statistieke
2 Kompleksiteit Statistieke kan vroeg in die ontwikkeling van sagteware lewensiklus word gemeet.
3 Kompleksiteit statistieke is meer kompleks as Grootte Statistieke
Cyclomatic Kompleksiteit
1 Uit ‘n rekenaarprogram ita € ™ s beheer vloei grafiek G afgelei kan word.
2 Elke knoop en boog van die grafiek ooreen met ‘n tak of besluit punt in die program.
3 Gebruik V (G) = E â € “”N + 2 waar E die aantal rande en N die aantal knope, ons kan V (G) maw die Cyclomatic kompleksiteit lei.
4 McCabe dui daarop dat V (G) gebruik kan word om die program kompleksiteit te meet. Daarom is dit ‘n riglyn vir program ontwikkeling en toetsing.
knope
1 Hierdie konsep is wat verband hou met die opstel van die program beheer vloei grafiek met ‘n knoop vir elke stelling van blok van opeenvolgende state
2 A knoop word dan gedefinieer word as ‘n noodsaaklike kruising van rigting lyne van die grafiek
3 Die Cyclomatic kompleksiteit nie dienooreenkomstig vloei
Inligting Flow metrieke
1 Informational vloei in ‘n program struktuur kan gebruik word as ‘n maatstaf vir die program kompleksiteit.
2 Basies een tel die aantal inligting vloei betree (fan-in) en opwindende (fan-out) van elke prosedure
3 Procedureâ € ™ s kompleksiteit is C = [prosedure lengte] * [fan-in + fan-out] ^ 2 1 Dit is ‘n baie eenvoudige metrieke

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Lecture 5

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Lecture 5

Lifecycles: Linear, V, W, X Cognition, bias and visualisation
Linear model
Steps:
Requirements Analysis Design Code Testing Implementation
V-Model
Steps:
Requirements  AT (Acceptance Testing)
Analysis  ST (System Testing)
Design  CT & IT (Component and Integration testing)
Implementation
System testing: does the system do what the system is intended to do
Acceptance testing: to see if the customer is satisfied
Advantages of V over Linear model
You build your test cases after design stages CT & IT testing is the most specific testing Read about linear and V model

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lecture 5

Ċikli ta ‘ħajja: lineari, V, W, X Konjizzjoni, preġudizzju u viżwalizzazzjoni
mudell lineari
passi:
Rekwiżiti Implimentazzjoni Analiżi Disinn Kodiċi Ittestjar
V-Mudell
passi:
Rekwiżiti ïƒ … AT (Aċċettazzjoni Ittestjar)
Analiżi ïƒ … RD (Sistema Ittestjar)
Disinn ïƒ … CT & IT (Komponent u ttestjar Integrazzjoni)
implimentazzjoni
ittestjar Sistema: ma s-sistema tagħmel dak tas-sistema hija maħsuba li tagħmel
ittestjar ta ‘aċċettazzjoni: biex tara jekk il-klijent ikun sodisfatt
Vantaġġi ta ‘V fuq mudell lineari
Inti tibni każijiet ta ‘eżaminazzjoni tiegħek wara disinn istadji CT & IT ittestjar hija l-ittestjar aktar speċifiku Aqra dwar lineari u l-mudell V

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lesing 5

Lewensiklusse: Lineêre, V, W, X Kognisie, vooroordeel en visualisering
lineêre model
stappe:
Vereistes Ontleding Design Kode Toets Implementering
V-Model
stappe:
Vereistes ïƒ … BY (Keuring)
Ontleding ïƒ … ST (System toets)
Ontwerp ïƒ … CT & IT (komponent en toetsing integrasie)
implementering
Stelsel toets: maak die stelsel doen wat die stelsel is daarop gemik om te doen
Aanvaarding toets: om te sien of die kliënt is tevrede
Voordele van V oor lineêre model
Jy bou jou toets gevalle ná ontwerp stadiums CT & IT toets is die mees spesifieke toets Lees meer oor lineêre en V model

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leksion 5

Lifecycles: lineare, V, W, X Njohja, paragjykim dhe vizualizimi
modeli Linear
hapat:
Kërkesat Analiza Dizajn Code Testing Zbatimi
V-Model
hapat:
Kërkesat ïƒ … AT (Pranimi Testing)
Analiza ïƒ … ST (Sistemi Testing)
Dizajni ïƒ … CT & IT (Komponenti dhe testimi Integrim)
zbatim
Testimi i Sistemit: bën sistemi çfarë sistemi ka për qëllim për të bërë
Testimi Pranimi: për të parë në qoftë se klienti është i kënaqur
Avantazhet e V mbi modelin Linear
Ju ndërtuar rastet e provimit pas dizajn fazat CT & IT testimi është testimi më specifike Lexuar në lidhje lineare dhe modelin V

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ሌክቸር 5

Lifecycles: መስመራዊ, አምስተኛ, ወ, X Cognition, በመሠረተ እና ምስላዊ
መስመራዊ ሞዴል
እርምጃዎች:
መስፈርቶች ትንተና ንድፍ ኮድ ሙከራ ላይ ማዋል
የ V-ሞዴል
እርምጃዎች:
መስፈርቶች አት … ïƒ (መቀበል ሙከራ)
ትንተና ïƒ … ST (የስርዓት ሙከራ)
ንድፍ ïƒ … ሲቲ & የአይቲ (አካል እና ውህደት ሙከራ)
አፈጻጸም
የስርዓት ምርመራ: ስርዓቱ ሥርዓት ለማድረግ ታስቦ የተዘጋጀ ነው ምን ያደርጋል
ተቀባይነት ሙከራ: ደንበኛው እርካታ እንደሆነ ለማየት
መስመራዊ ሞዴል በላይ አምስተኛ ጥቅሞች
ንድፍ ሲቲ ደረጃዎች & IT የሙከራ መስመራዊ እና V ሞዴል ስለ አንብብ በጣም የተወሰነ ምርመራ ነው በኋላ የእርስዎ የሙከራ ጉዳዮች ለመገንባት

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محاضرة 5

دورات حياة: خطي، V، W، X الإدراك والتحيز والتصور
نموذج خطي
خطوات:
تحليل الاحتياجات تصميم رمز اختبار التنفيذ
V الموديل
خطوات:
متطلبات ïƒ … AT (اختبار القبول)
تحليل ïƒ … ST (نظام اختبار)
تصميم ïƒ … CT وتكنولوجيا المعلومات (مكون واختبار التكامل)
التنفيذ
اختبار النظام: يفعل النظام ما هو المقصود من نظام للقيام
اختبار القبول: لمعرفة ما اذا اقتنعت العملاء
مزايا الخامس على النموذج الخطي
يمكنك بناء حالات الاختبار بعد تصميم مراحل CT & IT الاختبار هو اختبار الأكثر تحديدا اقرأ عن الخطية ونموذج V

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Դասախոսությունների 5

Lifecycles: Գծային, V, W, X ճանաչողություն, կողմնակալ եւ արտացոլման
գծային մոդելը
Քայլեր:
Պահանջներ Analysis Design օրենսգրքի Testing իրականացում
V-մոդել
Քայլեր:
Պահանջներ ïƒ … AT (ընդունման փորձարկումների)
Վերլուծություն ïƒ … ST (System Testing)
Դիզայն ïƒ … CT & ՏՏ (Component եւ ինտեգրման թեստավորման)
իրականացում
Համակարգի փորձարկման արդյոք այդ համակարգը անել այն, ինչ, որ համակարգը նախատեսված է անել
Ընդունման փորձարկումների: տեսնել, եթե հաճախորդը բավարարված
Առավելությունները V ավելի քան գծային մոդելի
Դուք կառուցել ձեր թեսթի դեպքերը հետո, դիզայն բեմադրում CT & ՏՏ թեստավորման առավել կոնկրետ թեստավորման Կարդալ գծային եւ V մոդելը

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Lecture 5

Yaşam-Çevrim: Linear, V, W, X idrak, bias və vizual
Linear model
Steps:
Tələblər Analysis Design Kodu Testing həyata keçirilməsi
V-Model
Steps:
Tələblər AT … ïƒ (qəbul Testing)
Analysis ïƒ … ST (System Testing)
Design ïƒ … CT & IT (Komponent və inteqrasiya test)
İcra
System test: sistemini etmək üçün nəzərdə tutulmuşdur nə etmir
Qəbul test: müştəri razı olub olmadığını görmek üçün
Linear model üzərində V üstünlükləri
dizayn CT mərhələləri & IT test xətti və V modeli haqqında oxuyun ən xüsusi test sonra test hallarda qurmaq

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Hitzaldia 5

Bizitza zikloan: lineala, V, W, X Cognition, alborapena eta bistaratzea
eredu lineala
Urratsak:
Baldintzak aztertzea Design Code Entseguak Implementation
V-Model
Urratsak:
Baldintzak ïƒ … AT (onarpena Entseguak)
Analisi ïƒ … ST (System Entseguak)
Diseinu ïƒ … CT & IT (Component eta Integrazio probak)
Implementation
Sistema probak: sistema egiten du sisteman zer nahi da egin
Onarpena probak: bezeroak pozik bada ikusteko
eredu lineala baino V abantailak
Zure proba kasuak eraikitzeko duzu diseinuaren etapak CT ondoren eta IT probak probak zehatzagoa lineala eta V eredua buruz irakurri da

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Лекцыя 5

Жыццёвыя цыклы: лінейныя, V, W, X Пазнанне, прадузятасць і візуалізацыя
лінейная мадэль
крокі:
Аналіз патрабаванняў Распрацоўка кода Тэставанне Укараненне
V-мадэль
крокі:
Патрабаванні да ïƒ … AT (прыёмачных выпрабаванняў)
Аналіз ïƒ … ST (сістэма тэставання)
Дызайн ïƒ … CT & IT (кампанентаў і тэставання інтэграцыі)
рэалізацыя
Тэставанне сістэмы: гэта сістэма рабіць тое, што сістэма прызначана, каб зрабіць
Прыёмачныя выпрабаванні: каб убачыць, калі кліент задаволены
Перавагі V над лінейнай мадэлі
Вы будуеце свае тэставыя выпадкі пасля этапаў праектавання КТ і IT-тэставанне з’яўляецца найбольш спецыфічным тэставанне Чытайце аб лінейнай і V мадэлі

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লেকচার 5

Lifecycles: লিনিয়ার, ভী, ওয়াট, এক্স বোধশক্তি, পক্ষপাত ও কল্পনা
লিনিয়ার মডেল
প্রারম্ভিক ব্যবহারের নির্দেশাবলী:
আবশ্যকতা বিশ্লেষণ ডিজাইন কোড টেস্টিং বাস্তবায়ন
ভী মডেল
প্রারম্ভিক ব্যবহারের নির্দেশাবলী:
আবশ্যকতা ïƒ … যেমন AT (গ্রহন নিরিক্ষা)
বিশ্লেষণ ïƒ … উপজাতি (সিস্টেম টেস্টিং)
ডিজাইন ïƒ … সিটি আইটি (কম্পোনেন্ট এবং ইন্টিগ্রেশন টেস্টিং)
বাস্তবায়ন
সিস্টেম টেস্টিং: সিস্টেম কি সিস্টেমের জন্য দেয়ার উদ্দেশ্যে করা হচ্ছে কি না
স্বীকৃতি টেস্টিং: দেখতে গ্রাহক যদি এই মর্মে সন্তুষ্ট হয়
লিনিয়ার মডেল উপর ভী উপকারিতা
নকশা পর্যায়ে পরে সিটি আইটি পরীক্ষার সবচেয়ে নির্দিষ্ট পরীক্ষার রৈখিক এবং V মডেল সম্পর্কে পড়ুন আপনি আপনার পরীক্ষা ক্ষেত্রে গড়ে তুলতে

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Lecture 6

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Lecture 6
W-model
23 Having a V model over a V model (3D) 24 The 2nd V are quality activities 25 W-model = V model + quality control of products 26 Do quality controls at end of each activity e.g. C + IT
X-model
27 Take W-model and make it 4D 28 X-model = W-model + increasing maturity of processes 29 Verifying the processes.
Summary
V = development W = V + QC (quality control) products X = W + process maturity
CMM (Capability Maturity Model)
Drawn by SEI (Software Engineering Industry)
5 Levels
Level 1 – Initial (Ad Hoc) Level 2 – Repeatable Level 3 – Defined Level 4 – Managed Level 5 – Optimising
Higher level = higher maturity
Cognition, visualisation + bias
Cognition: how we perceive things
Visualisation:
Bias: confirming bias. People tend to confirm rather than disprove.

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lecture 6
W-mudell
23 Wara mudell V fuq mudell V (3D) 24 L 2 V huma attivitajiet ta ‘kwalità 25 W mudell = V mudell + kontroll tal-kwalità tal-prodotti 26 kontrolli ta’ kwalità Do fi tmiem kull attività eż C + IT
X-mudell
27 Ħu W-mudell u jagħmilha 4D 28-X-mudell = maturità dejjem jikber ta ‘proċessi 29 vverifikata l-proċessi W-mudell +.
sommarju
V = iżvilupp W = V + QC (kontroll ta ‘kwalità) prodotti X = W + proċess maturità
CMM (Kapaċità tal Maturità Mudell)
Mħażża mill SEI (Software Engineering Industrija)
5 Livelli
Livell 1 â € “”Inizjali (Ad Hoc) Livell 2 â €”” repetuti Livell 3 â € “”Imfissra Livell 4 â €”” Immexxi Livell 5 â € “”Nottimizzaw
livell ogħla = maturità ogħla
Konjizzjoni, viżwalizzazzjoni + bias
Konjizzjoni: kif aħna jipperċepixxu affarijiet
viżwalizzazzjoni:
Bias: tikkonferma preġudizzju. In-nies għandhom tendenza li jikkonfermaw u mhux invalidati.

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lesing 6
W-model
23 Na ‘n V-model oor ‘n V-model (3D) 24 Die 2 V is kwaliteit aktiwiteite 25 W-model = V model + gehaltebeheer van produkte 26 Do gehalte beheer aan die einde van elke aktiwiteit bv C + is dit
X-model
27 Neem W-model en maak dit 4D 28 X-model = W-model + toenemende volwassenheid van prosesse 29 Bevestig die prosesse.
opsomming
V = ontwikkeling W = V + QC (gehaltebeheer) produkte X = W + proses volwassenheid
CMM (Capability Maturity Model)
Getrek deur SEI (Software Engineering Industry)
5 vlakke
Vlak 1 â € “”Aanvanklike (ad hoc) vlak 2 â €”” Herhaalbare vlak 3 â € “”gedefinieerde vlak 4 â €”” Managed vlak 5 â € “”Optimalisering
‘N hoër vlak = hoër volwassenheid
Kognisie, visualisering + vooroordeel
Kognisie: hoe ons waarneem dinge
Visualisering:
Vooroordeel: bevestig vooroordeel. Mense is geneig om te bevestig eerder as te weerlê.

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leksion 6
W-model
23 Duke pasur një model V mbi një model V (3D) 24 2 V janë aktivitete të cilësisë 25 W-modeli = modeli V + të kontrollit të cilësisë së produkteve 26 kontrollet e cilësisë A në fund të çdo aktiviteti, psh C + IT
X-model
27 Merrni W-model dhe të bëjë atë 4D 28 X-model = W-model + pjekurinë në rritje të proceseve 29 verifikimin e proceseve.
përmbledhje
V = zhvillimi W = V + QC (kontrollit të cilësisë) produkte X = W + procesi i maturimit
CMM (Aftësia Maturimi Model)
Tërhequr nga SEI (Software Engineering Industry)
5 Nivelet
Niveli 1 â € “”fillestar (Ad Hoc) Niveli 2 â €”” Niveli përsëritet 3 â € “”Përcaktuar Level 4 â €”” Managed Level 5 â € “”Optimizimi
Niveli më i lartë = pjekurinë më të lartë
Njohja, vizualizimi + paragjykim
Njohja: se si ne i perceptojmë gjërat
Vizualizimi:
Bias: konfirmuar paragjykim. Njerëzit kanë tendencë për të konfirmuar në vend që të përgënjeshtroj.

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ንግግር 6
W-ሞዴል
23 V ሞዴል ላይ V ሞዴል (3 ዲ) 24 2 ኛ V ልባችሁስ ናቸው ጥራት እንቅስቃሴዎች ለምሳሌ እያንዳንዱን እንቅስቃሴ መጨረሻ ላይ 25 W-ሞዴል = V ሞዴል + ምርቶች ጥራት ቁጥጥር 26 አድርግ ጥራት መቆጣጠሪያዎች ሐ የአይቲ +
የ X-ሞዴል
27 መድብ W-ሞዴል አድርግ; 4 ል 28 የ X-ሞዴል = W-ሞዴል + ይላል ሂደቶች ማረጋገጥ ሂደቶች 29 እየጨመረ ብስለት.
ማጠቃለያ
V = የልማት ወ = V + QC (ጥራት ቁጥጥር) ምርቶች X = W + ሂደት ብስለት
CMM (አቅም ብስለት ሞዴል)
SEI በ የተሳለው (ሶፍትዌር ኢንጂነሪንግ ኢንዱስትሪ)
5 ደረጃዎች
ደረጃ 1 â € “”የመጀመሪያ (ጊዜያዊ) € ደረጃ 2″” ሊደገም ደረጃ 3 â € የሚተዳደር “”ደረጃ 4 â ፍቺ €”” ደረጃ 5 € “”በአግባቡ
ከፍተኛ ደረጃ = ከፍተኛ ብስለት
Cognition, ምስላዊ + በመድሎ
Cognition: እንዴት ነገር አያለሁ
Visualisation:
ቅርጸት: መጣመም ያጸና ነበር. ሰዎች ለማረጋገጥ ይልቅ ሐሰት ይቀናቸዋል.

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محاضرة 6
W-نموذج
23 وجود نموذج V على النموذج الخامس (3D) 24 V 2ND هي أنشطة الجودة 25 W-نموذج = V نموذج + مراقبة جودة المنتجات 26 مراقبة الجودة القيام به في نهاية كل نشاط على سبيل المثال C + تكنولوجيا المعلومات
X-نموذج
27 خذ W-نموذج وجعلها 4D 28 X-نموذج = W-نموذج + زيادة نضج العمليات 29 التحقق من العمليات.
ملخص
V = تطوير W = V + مراقبة الجودة (مراقبة الجودة) منتجات X = W + عملية النضج
ل أ ج ب (نموذج نضج القدرات)
رسمها SEI (صناعة البرمجيات هندسة)
5 مستويات
المستوى 1 â € “”الأولية (المخصص) مستوى 2 â €”” للتكرار مستوى 3 â € “”نتميز مستوى 4 â €”” المدارة مستوى 5 â € “”Optimising
مستوى أعلى = استحقاق العالي
الإدراك، والتصور + التحيز
الإدراك: كيف نتصور الأشياء
التخيل:
التحيز: يؤكد انحياز. الناس يميلون إلى تأكيد بدلا من دحض.

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Դասախոսությունների 6
W-մոդելը
23 Ունենալով V մոդելը ավելի V մոդելը (3D) 24 2-րդ V են որակի գործունեությունը 25 W-model = V մոդելը + որակի հսկողության ապրանքների 26 որակի վերահսկում վերջում յուրաքանչյուր գործունեության օրինակ C + Այն
X-մոդելը
27 Վերցրեք W-մոդելը եւ դարձնել այն 4D 28 X-մոդելը = W-մոդելը + բարձրացման մարման գործընթացների 29 ստուգելու գործընթացները:
ամփոփում
V = զարգացման W = V + QC (որակի վերահսկողության) արտադրանք X = W + գործընթաց մարման
Համայնքի (Capability Հասունություն Model)
Նկարված է SEI (Software Engineering արդյունաբերություն)
5 մակարդակներում
Level 1 â € “”նախնական (ժամանակավոր) 2-րդ մակարդակի â €”” պարբերաբար Մակարդակ 3 â € “”Սահմանված Level 4 â €”” Կառավարվող Մակարդակ 5 â € “”Optimising
Բարձրագույն մակարդակը = բարձր է մարման
Ծանոթություն, արտացոլման + կողմնակալ
Ծանոթություն `ինչպես ենք մենք ընկալում բաներ
Visualisation:
Կողմնակալության: հաստատող կողմնակալություն. Մարդիկ հակված են հաստատելու, այլ ոչ թե հերքել.

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Policies & Plans

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Policies & Plans
Strategic planning covers time frames of five to ten years.
Involves the whole systems development workforce.
May appear constraining of short-term needs and benefits may appear too far off.
Must be sensible and widely understood if employees are to accept its relevance in their day to day operation.
Employees must be made to understand relevance of strategic planning if their jobs, company profitability, growth and future evolution of company is to be guaranteed.
An information systems strategy is one of the many required strategic plans within overall organisation strategy.
An information systems strategy plan does not exist in isolation, It requires INPUTS from:
1 External facts to organisation (Political, social, economic, competitive, technological.
2 Overall organisation strategy which is also conditioned by 1.
3 Current status of IS development. It’s OUTPUTS include:
1 A policy statement on systems, personnel and jobs.
2 A required information systems set and application master plan.
3 A resource schedule. The information systems set and application master plan will lead to a set of feasibility study reports each of which includes deliver
ables such as: Project network Gantt chart Financial plans Computer plans Task sheets
i.e. a strategic plan generates a hierarchy of plans.
Plans have to be tailored according to services provided by the organisation.
Mass production type companies concerned about monitoring and scheduling production and monitoring stock levels.
Customer service companies and public organisations concerned about managing historical data to serve the public, collect revenues and control costs.
The long term strategy of the organisation for growth is also important. A company which grows by acquisitions or take-overs must create integrated and consolidated systems.
One which grows by expansion and diversification needs statistic cal information and data external database information about the industry.
Technological Change
1 Hardware is going down in price.
2 Computing is being rapidly integrated in a general communications strategy.
3 User interfaces are becoming more friendly and standardised.
4 Opportunities for competitive advantage. One cannot imagine a future bank or finance house not driving itself with latest technology.
5 Companies must judge their depth of resources and research capabilities in deciding whether to lead or follow the pioneers.
People In Jobs
People within an organisation as well as available positions and recruitment possibilities outside the company have an important influence on the formation of an ISS.
Internally an organisation has a staff culture which transmits a style of behaviour.
The way a company has planned its development in the past, influences its approach to ISS.
E.g. A company which has always taken the approach of creating
pilot programs will prefer prototyping.
If a particular manager or department has always taken the lead in
innovation the same is expected for IT.
Interaction between the new systems and people must be considered.
IS demands new advanced skills.
Staff needs to be made aware of change and involved in it. The
necessary information must be provided and ways of means of retraining and redefining jobs must be agreed to.
Therefore the interaction of staff with systems needs careful study. The degree and nature of this interaction must be carefully analysed for each job role.
External political economies and social factors also have an influence on an organisation’s information strategy.
Exercise: Evaluate the ISS for a public sector organisation in relation to the government’s ISD plan
Data protection awareness and legislation is also having implication for the ISS.
Another crucial factor in ISS which in many cases forms basic constraints is the current state of systems within the organisation.
Analysis of the current state of the IS from both the organisational and suppliers point of view is therefore fundamental.
A basic concept in planning is that one can only plan for his target position in the future if he knows where he is now.
Strategic Team
To drive an ISS a strategy team must be charged with its construction and have necessary skills to see it through.
The composition of the team will be drawn from the following interested players:
The Information Systems Group
The Systems Users Group
Union and Staff representatives
External Consultants.
In the main at this stage the depth of Knowledge and experience required will be
found at the senior and middle levels of each group.
However the views of the junior levels should be sought for it is
them who eventually must implement it.
Strategy teams should not be too large for this creates personality
and self interest problems.
Organisation structures and collective agreement mechanisms may
constrain the way the team is selected.
Basic Deliverables for an ISS
1 Policies to guide later, more detailed decisions.
2 A specific overall plan called the application master plan for major system developments over the appropriate time-spans.
3 Schedules for major resource acquisitions and allocation over the time-span of the plan i.e. hardware, software and personnel.
Policies
The policies must be formulated in statements which should be communicated and explained at all levels and sections of an organisation.
Policy statements should include:
Background reasons for drawing a plan.
Identification of the technology base and description of vendor profile which will guide acquisition of the required technology.
General principles guiding distribution of facilities to the various divisions of the organisations.
Overriding considerations and basic framework constraints which will operate during the plans lifetime.
E.g. New positions must be filled by retraining staff. Current mainframe and database are to be retained. Development priorities must be identified.
E.g. which systems to develop first, which to upgrade, which to put to pilot use etc.
Implications for staff and how to deal with them must be outlined.
Application Master Plan
Information systems tend to be interrelated, some being more closely coupled than others.
Together they form an information set which should cover all information requirements of an organisation.
They normally provide and manage information at four levels namely:
Personal systems which provide support for personal and office tasks such as WP, diary, CAD or group tasks such as E-mail or document retrieval.
Operational systems manage the say to day transactions and record which comprise the routine activities of a business.
Management systems provide managers with the summary information they require to control the current activities of the organisation.
Decision system provide the senior management with the required external data and internal trends to allow it to understand and model business options before taking decisions which affect the long term success of the enterprise.
Identification of applications for potential computerisation.
Identified from:
Research which goes in formulating the IS strategy
Suggestions made by consultants
Discussions with personnel in key functional areas. The identified requirements are then used to create a matrix of information required.
This consists of a two way table.
1 In one direction showing system level which it serves: decision, managerial…
2 In the other direction the section which it serves
E.g. Financial Control, Sales, Personnel etc.
1 The role which information plays in each function is described in each cell of the table.
2 A data flow diagram is also created, showing at this top level the link between systems in an information systems set.
3 From the information set DFD, systems and their linkages can be established, from which a proposed master plan can be drafted.
Application master plan shows a list of applications each with a priority and development time span within life of the ISS plan.
Criteria used to select and prioritise systems include:
1 Benefits to be derived from a particular subsystem.
2 Strategic worth such as giving the company a long term competitive edge or good image.
3 Foundation value i.e. they act as the ground works on which other systems can be built.
4 Resource balancing. Select systems which can be developed within the resource facilities available at a point in time.
The application of the master plan should be the responsibility of the steering committee.
This steering committee would include a working party to review and make agreed amendments to the plan.
It is chaired by a senior executive at headquarters level. Should have representatives from major divisions.
It will assess input from the various potential users to ensure it is feasible and complete.

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Organisation of systems development

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Organisation of systems development
The first problem which arises is who should control and drive systems development.
There is a whole spectrum of options ranging from independent development by each separate unit to specialist development teams under control of company headquarters.
Universities and research institutes are likely to take the first approach, whereas banks and large retailing chains are likely to take the second approach.
Points to consider include:
Organisation structure and degree of divisional autonomy.
The number of objectives and methods used within the organisation. Amount of data interchange amongst the various units.
Competence of staff within the separate units.
Such considerations also have an important bearing on the organisational chart of a company.
For example in a decentralised system the computer manager will report to a divisional head.
In a company where information management holds a strategic role in the company’s success, an Information Systems director will form part of the company’s board of directors.
Systems Development is a broad team effort and may comprise a wide range of tasks and skills. However tasks in Systems Development tend to fall into three categories namely
Strategic tasks
Tactical tasks
Support and Operational tasks
Strategic Development
Feasibility work for major systems Requirements analysis for major system Design of major systems System testing Training
User trials and first time support.
Tactical Development
Analysis of costings for enhancements Enhancement design Enhancement programming and testing System interfacing Package modification System error correction Support
User development support (Information centre)
Database maintenance Operating system (and other system software) maintenance In-house hardware support (terminals, comms equipment, etc) Strategic tasks are derived from and interact directly with the application master plan. Staff can be organised either into project teams or into functional teams. Both
approaches pros and cons.
Project Structure
Pro: Good identification with user objectives Promotes responsibility for deadlines/budgets Encourages development of specialist knowledge Tends to erode boundaries between analysis and programming jobs Con: System documentation is largely internal to team during development and receives no
public scrutiny
Career development for individuals may be blurred by the homogeneous team approach Energy may be wasted by teams competing for resources
Functional Structure
Pro: Individuals have a clear sense of job identity, encouraging professionalism The “airing” of the specifications between functions promotes quality Scheduling of work is simpler as there are no application specialisms to worry about
functions Con: Responsibility for an individual project may become diffused Staff are encouraged to orientate towards functions and may lose sight of organisation
objectives Time may be wasted in solving problems of communication between functions
A hybrid system may be adopted where senior analysts and designers are project oriented, whereas programmers and testers are allocated from a pool.
In addition, support and inspection teams reporting directly to a quality manager ensure conformance to standards, valid systems and proper documentation.
It is also important that a staff development plan be in place to ensure staff gather a range of experiences and a progression of personal growth.
Strategic teams concentrate on: Business analysis
Development methods and techniques
Project control
Tactical or management development teams concern themselves with maintenance of system. They also concern themselves with interfacing and information exchange between systems. Small modifications to systems are also considered as part of the role of tactical development staff. Some of the skills required of this team include:
Ability to respond to faults in live systems which put organisations at risk. Knowledge and experience in a variety of applications
Being conversant with the live environment.
Be able to find a rapid solution to dynamic problems which arise without
compromising quality. Support staff provides and maintains the day to day operating and transaction handling environment.
They provide:
Information services and help lines on stand and packages.
Maintain operating system and utilities
Assess new tools such as new programming and CASE tools.
Data base administration support.
Support for liaison between various hardware and software suppliers. Knowledge of
networks structures and protocols is important.
In a project oriented organisation, a systems development organisation chart could
include the following job designations
Support Manager
Information centre Manager
Analysts
Programmers
Database Administrator
Analyst
Programmers
Software Sector leader
System programmers
Communication sector leader
Communications engineers
Communication System programmers
Budgeting for Information systems
The Systems Development manager will be required to produce an annual budget to the senior financial manager
Budget breakdown units: Hardware costs Software costs Staff costs Supplies Services required
Budgets have to be:
Negotiated: Information management will be competing for funds. Recosting and resubmission may be required. Monitored: with actual costs being compared with budget. End of year positions
should be constantly forecasted. Controlled: Once budgets are agreed they become a commitment. However events which arise may require amendments to it which must be negotiated. Action may need to be taken to offset the variance.
Relationship of users to System Development.
These occur at two levels: Formal level Informal level
At a formal level, projects must be funded.
This can be done at organisational level and considered an organisation overhead.
OR
User department must individually budget for their system development requirements
in which case a charging mechanism must be put in place to form the basis of billing costs to the user department. In this case the relationship is that of a client to a supplier,
Non financial relationships of user to developer are crucial.
Problems arise as regards Jargon used Staff turnover and loyalty
Poor estimating and risk assessment
Poor standards of communication and documentation
The development of standard methodologies has improved. User involvement Better analysis and design Structured framework where projects are broken down into a systems life
cycle with outputs of each stage clearly with outputs of each stage clearly
identified. There are various approaches to development methods which tend to fall into three groups namely:
Human focus approach
Modelling focus approach
Professional focus approach
Human focus recognises that the computer is only one element in the environment in which the systems must operate. Human activity approach considers: The zone in which system is to be implemented The identity of the participants and their different objectives
The social and political climate. Socio technical design looks at social interaction between system users and job content.
Weighs them up against technical aspects until a preferred combination emerges. Prototyping successively proposes and refines models of the whole or part of the intended system at each step bringing the gap between what the user really needs and what is perceived as his needs as the developer understands them at a point in time.
The Modelling Focus Approach
Models a system using structured methods and techniques. The SSADM method is a typical modelling focus approach. Typical stages are:
Data modelling
Process modelling
Event modelling
Structured tasks
The Professional Focus Approach
concentrates on organising the development team and ensuring the right mix of skills
It features include: Team organisation Review methods Quality management
A successful development will probably utilise a blend of all three approaches as appropriate to a particular part of life cycle. Prototypes some considerations Successive refinements of user needs User specifies needs Designer Tempers expectations Basic prototype cost established Simpler interactive prototype built. Emphasis I/O data elements in second and third stage
Process refined to take into consideration:
Feedback from previous version
New design ideas
More complex logic.
At end of prototyping cycle one may end up with full system (unlikely) or A good basis for specification of user requirements.
Some problems with prototyping include: Performance level and response times Security and privacy Interfacing with other systems
Lack of standards Need of quick build tools and CASE tools However in many cases prototyping is suitable for small localised “autonomised
systems”
Prototyping can be useful support at all stages of a life cycle.
The human focus is most important in the:
Feasibility
Requirements
Dialogue design
Implementation stages
The modelling focus is more important in: Analysis Design Maintenance stages
The professional focus is most important in: Design Systems construction Enhancement stages
Careful selection and integration of methods is therefore necessary to create a
comprehensive methodology.
A method and plan should therefore be defined to suit the needs of a particular
required system.

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Project Planning

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Project Planning
Confirmed project brief
To document the delegated responsibility which the project board as a whole has been given.
This product describes the collective responsibility of the project board. The individual responsibilities of the project board members are described in the definition of organisation and responsibilities product.
Business product definition
A definition of the business product which the project board have been charged with delivering.
Business product scope
To define the scope of the business product which is to be produced by the project
Business product quality
To set the quality expectation for the business product
This product sets the quality expectation for the business product which will result from the project. The quality expectation for the way in which the delivery of the business product is managed is set in the quality plan.
Business product constraints
To define the constraints within which the business product is to be produced.
Business product interfaces
To describe the relationship that the business product, once produced, will have with other business products and business procedures. This description will enable the product to be produced to conform to them.
Delegated limits of authority
To document the limits of responsibility which have been given to the project board as a whole.
Business case
To confirm and document the reason and justification for the production of the business product against which the ongoing viability of the project will be monitored.
Business opportunity/problem description
To confirm and describe the overall business problem or opportunity.
Reason for selection or solution
To confirm and document the reason for the selection of the business product which the project is to produce as the desired solution to address the overall business problem or opportunity.
Investment appraisal
To provide an objective analysis of the costs and benefits which apply to the business product and its production.
Definition of organisation and responsibilities
To formally define the project management organisation structure and responsibilities for the project.
Organisational structure diagram
To provide an overview of the project management structure and responsibilities.
Refined job descriptions
To provide project specific job descriptions for the project management (PRINCE) roles.
Responsibility forms
To formally assign individuals to the specific project management (PRINCE) roles.
Project plan
To provide a baseline plan of how the project objectives are to be achieved against which the project progress will be measured.
Project plan description
To introduce the plan and to briefly describe the work on which it is based and the format it takes. This should include an outline of the approach taken to staging.
Quality plan
To define the quality strategy for the project.
This product describes the quality strategy for the production of the business product.
It does not define the required quality of the business product itself which is the
business product quality product.
Project prerequisites
Project external dependencies
To document the external dependencies which exist within the project plan and to provide a basis for monitoring them.
Project planning assumptions
To state clearly all the assumptions made during the planning, that is, those things where the facts either cannot be determined or where to determine them would involve effort or time at a level inconsistent with the overall importance of the project to the business.
Project risk analysis
To identify those aspects of the project which have the potential to adversely affect the probability of the project being successful and to identify measures taken in the planning to cater for those which are unacceptable to the project board.
Configuration management plan
To define the configuration management procedures, methods, responsibilities and scope for the project including, where applicable, the definition of the interfaces with configuration management procedures external to the project.
Project technical plan
The project technical plan shows the major activities that will occur throughout the project and how they have been derived.
Project level product breakdown structure
To represent diagrammatically the management, technical and quality products of the project and their relationship to each other with respect to composition.
Project level product flow diagram
To diagrammatically represent the inter-product relationships (at project planning level) with respect to their derivation over time.
Project level product descriptions
To provide a definitive description of all the products which the project is to produce and upon which it is dependent.
Project level activity network
To show diagrammatically the overall organisation and flow of activities identified from the project level product flow diagram.
To portray the key aspects of the project technical graphical summary.
Project resource plan
A plan describing the resource requirements for the entire project, as portrayed in the technical plan.
Project table of resource requirements
A table to show resource requirements for the project by resource type over time and project stage.
Project resource plan graphical summary
To chart a graphical summary the cumulative cost of the project over time.
Requested/assigned specific resources
To document the details of specific resources (other than those which have already been assigned to project management roles in the organisation structure diagram) which have already been allocated to the project or which have been specifically requested for the project.
The steps in the planning cycle for preparing plans are the same for all levels of plan.
Planning cycle
1 Define technical strategy;
2 Define quality strategy;
2 Define/refine business products,
o Product breakdown structures,
o Product descriptions;
3 Establish product flow,
o Product flow diagram;
4 Identify activities & dependencies
o Product transformations;
5 Estimate effort required for each activity;
6 Assess resource availability;
7 Develop activity network;
8 Define control points;
9 Define timescales;
10 Assign responsibilities;
11 Calculate resources and costs;
12 Prepare narrative sections;
13 Prepare draft plans;
14 Submit plans to quality review;
15 Prepare final plans;
16 Submit plans to the project board for approval to proceed.

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Ippjanar proġett
qosor tal-proġett Ikkonfermat
Biex tiddokumenta r-responsabbiltà delegata li l-bord proġett kollu tkun ingħatat.
Dan il-prodott jiddeskrivi r-responsabbiltà kollettiva tal-bord proġett. Ir-responsabbiltajiet individwali tal-membri tal-bord tal-proġett huma deskritti fid-definizzjoni tal-organizzazzjoni u r-responsabbiltajiet tal-prodott.
definizzjoni tal-prodott tan-Negozju
Definizzjoni tal-prodott kummerċjali li l-bord proġett ġew inkarigati twassil.
ambitu tal-prodott tan-Negozju
Sabiex jiġi definit l-ambitu tal-prodott tan-negozju tagħha huwa li jiġu prodotti mill-proġett
kwalità tal-prodott tan-Negozju
Li tiffissa l-aspettattiva ta ‘kwalità għall-prodott tan-negozju
Dan il-prodott jistabbilixxi l-aspettattiva ta ‘kwalità għall-prodott in-negozju li se jirriżultaw mill-proġett. L-aspettattiva ta ‘kwalità għall-mod li bih il-kunsinna tal-prodott tan-negozju hija ġestita huwa stabbilit fil-pjan ta’ kwalità.
restrizzjonijiet prodott Negozju
Li tiddefinixxi l-limiti li fihom il-prodott tan-negozju huwa li tiġi prodotta.
Interfaces tal-prodott tan-Negozju
Biex niddeskrivu r-relazzjoni li l-prodott tan-negozju, meta jkun ġie prodott, se jkollhom ma ‘prodotti oħra tan-negozju u l-proċeduri tan-negozju. Din id-deskrizzjoni se jippermetti l-prodott li jiġi prodott li jikkonformaw magħhom.
limiti delegati tal-awtorità
Sabiex tiġi dokumentata l-limiti ta ‘responsabbiltà li ngħataw lill-bord proġett kollu.
każ ta ‘negozju
Biex tikkonferma u tiddokumenta r-raġuni u l-ġustifikazzjoni għall-produzzjoni tal-prodott tan-negozju li kontra tiegħu l-vijabbiltà kontinwa tal-proġett ser jiġi mmonitorjat.
opportunità ta ‘negozju / deskrizzjoni problema
Biex tikkonferma u jiddeskrivu l-problema globali tan-negozju jew l-opportunità.
Raġuni għall-għażla jew soluzzjoni
Biex tikkonferma u tiddokumenta r-raġuni għall-għażla tal-prodott tan-negozju li l-proġett huwa li tipproduċi bħala s-soluzzjoni mixtieq li tindirizza l-problema globali tan-negozju jew l-opportunità.
evalwazzjoni ta ‘investiment
Biex tipprovdi analiżi oġġettiva tal-ispejjeż u l-benefiċċji li japplikaw għall-prodott in-negozju u l-produzzjoni tagħha.
Definizzjoni ta ‘organizzazzjoni u r-responsabbiltajiet
Sabiex jiġi definit formalment il-ġestjoni istruttura organizzazzjoni tal-proġett u r-responsabbiltajiet għall-proġett.
dijagramma istruttura organizzattiva
Li tipprovdi ħarsa ġenerali lejn l-istruttura u r-responsabbiltajiet ta ‘ġestjoni tal-proġett.
deskrizzjonijiet tax-xogħol raffinat
Biex jipprovdi deskrizzjonijiet ta ‘xogħol speċifiku tal-proġett għall-ġestjoni tal-proġett (PRINCE) irwoli.
formoli ta ‘Responsabbiltà
Li tassenja formalment individwi għall-ġestjoni tal-proġett speċifiku (PRINCE) irwoli.
pjan ta ‘proġett
Biex tipprovdi pjan linja bażi ta ‘kif l-għanijiet tal-proġett biex jintlaħqu kontra li ser jiġi mkejjel il-progress tal-proġett.
Deskrizzjoni pjan ta ‘proġett
Li tintroduċi pjan u biex jiddeskrivu fil-qosor il-ħidma li fuqhom hija bbażata u l-format li tieħu. Dan għandu jinkludi deskrizzjoni tal-approċċ meħud għal waqfien.
pjan ta ‘kwalità
Biex jiddefinixxi l-istrateġija ta ‘kwalità għall-proġett.
Dan il-prodott jiddeskrivi l-istrateġija tal-kwalità għall-produzzjoni tal-prodott tan-negozju.
Hija ma jiddefinixxix il-kwalità meħtieġa tal-prodott tan-negozju innifsu li huwa l-
prodott ta ‘kwalità tal-prodott tan-negozju.
prerekwiżiti Proġett
dipendenzi esterni Proġett
Sabiex tiġi dokumentata l-dipendenzi esterni li jeżistu fi ħdan il-pjan tal-proġett u biex tipprovdi bażi għall-monitoraġġ tagħhom.
Suppożizzjonijet dwar ippjanar Proġett
Biex tiddikjara b’mod ċar l-suppożizzjonijiet li saru waqt l-ippjanar, jiġifieri, dawk l-affarijiet fejn il-fatti jew ma jistax jiġi ddeterminat jew fejn jiddeterminaw għalihom ikun jinvolvi ħidma u żmien fuq livell inkonsistenti ma ‘l-importanza ġenerali tal-proġett għall-negozju.
analiżi tar-riskju Proġett
Biex jiġu identifikati dawk l-aspetti tal-proġett li għandhom il-potenzjal li jaffettwaw negattivament il-probabbiltà tal-proġett li jirnexxu u biex tidentifika miżuri meħuda fl-ippjanar biex jilqgħu għal dawk li huma inaċċettabbli lill-bord proġett.
pjan ta ‘ġestjoni Konfigurazzjoni
Li tiddefinixxi l-ġestjoni konfigurazzjoni proċeduri, metodi, ir-responsabbiltajiet u l-ambitu tal-proġett inkluż, fejn applikabbli, id-definizzjoni tal-interkonnessjonijiet ma ‘proċeduri ta’ ġestjoni konfigurazzjoni esterni għall-proġett.
pjan tekniku tal-proġett
Il-pjan tekniku tal-proġett juri l-attivitajiet prinċipali li se jseħħu matul il-proġett u kif dawn ġew derivati.
istruttura livell tal-prodott tqassim proġett
Li tirrappreżenta permezz tad-dijagramma tal-prodotti ta ‘ġestjoni, tekniċi u ta’ kwalità tal-proġett u r-relazzjoni tagħhom ma ‘xulxin fir-rigward tal-kompożizzjoni.
flow diagram prodott livell tal-proġetti
Biex dijagramma jirrapreżentaw ir-relazzjonijiet inter-prodott (fil-livell ta ‘ppjanar tal-proġett) fir-rigward tal-derivazzjoni tagħhom matul iż-żmien.
Proġett deskrizzjonijiet tal-prodott livell
Li jipprovdu deskrizzjoni definittiva tal-prodotti kollha li l-proġett huwa li tipproduċi u li fuqhom jiddependi fuqu.
netwerk attività livell tal-proġetti
Biex turi dijagramma l-organizzazzjoni ġenerali u l-fluss ta ‘l-attivitajiet identifikati mill-flow diagram prodott livell ta’ proġett.
Li jpinġu l-aspetti ewlenin tal-proġett sommarju grafika tekniku.
pjan tar-riżorsi tal-Proġett
Pjan li jiddeskrivi r-rekwiżiti tar-riżorsi għall-proġett kollu, kif murija fil-pjan tekniku.
tabella Proġett ta rekwiżiti ta ‘riżorsi
Tabella li turi rekwiżiti tar-riżorsi għall-proġett skond it-tip ta ‘riżorsi matul iż-żmien u l-istadju tal-proġett.
pjan tar-riżorsi Proġett sommarju grafika
Biex chart sommarju grafika l-ispiża kumulattiva tal-proġett matul iż-żmien.
Mitluba / riżorsi speċifiċi assenjati
Sabiex tiġi dokumentata-dettalji ta ‘riżorsi speċifiċi (minbarra dawk li diġà ġew assenjati għall-proġett rwoli amministrazzjoni fid-dijagramma istruttura organizzazzjoni) li diġà ġew allokati għall-proġett jew li jkunu ġew speċifikament mitluba għall-proġett.
-Passi fil-ċiklu ta ‘ppjanar għas preparazzjoni ta’ pjanijiet huma l-istess għal-livelli kollha ta ‘pjan.
ċiklu ta ‘ppjanar
1 Iddefinixxi istrateġija tekniku;
2. Iddefinixxi istrateġija tal-kwalità;
2 Iddefinixxi / jirfinaw prodotti tan-negozju,
o istrutturi tqassim tal-Prodott,
o Deskrizzjoni tal-prodotti;
3. Tistabbilixxi fluss tal-prodott,
o flow diagram Prodotti;
4 Identifika attivitajiet & dipendenzi
o trasformazzjonijiet Prodott;
5 Sforz Stima meħtieġ għal kull attività;
6 Tivvaluta disponibbiltà tar-riżorsi;
7 Tiżviluppa netwerk attività;
8 Iddefinixxi punti ta ‘kontroll;
9 Iddefinixxi iskali kronoloġiċi;
10 responsabilitajiet Jassenja;
11 Ikkalkula r-riżorsi u l-ispejjeż;
12 Ipprepara taqsimiet narrattiva;
13 Ipprepara abbozzi tal-pjanijiet;
14 Issottometti pjanijiet biex reviżjoni tal-kwalità;
15 Ipprepara pjanijiet finali;
16 Issottometti pjanijiet biex il-bord tal-proġett għall-approvazzjoni li jipproċedi.

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The Process

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The Process
Overview
1 The roadmap to building high quality software products is software process. 2 Software processes are adapted to meet the needs of software engineers and managers as they undertake the development of a software product. 3 A software process provides a framework for managing activities that can
very easily get out of control. 4 Different projects require different software processes 5 The software engineer’s work products (programs, documentation, data)
are produced as consequences of the activities defined by the software process
6 The best indicators of how well a software process has worked are the quality, timeliness, and long-term viability of the resulting software product.
Software Engineering
1 Software engineering encompasses a process, management techniques, technical methods, and the use of tools.
Generic Software Engineering Phases
2 Definition phase – focuses on what (information engineering, software project planning, requirements analysis). 3 Development phase – focuses on how (software design, code generation, software testing). 4 Support phase – focuses on change (corrective maintenance, adaptive maintenance, perfective maintenance, preventive maintenance).
Software Engineering Umbrella Activities
1 Software project tracking and control
2 Formal technical reviews
3 Software quality assurance
4 Software configuration management
5 Document preparation and production
6 Reusability management
7 Measurement
8 Risk management
Common Process Framework
1 Software engineering work tasks
2 Project milestones
3 Work products
4 Quality assurance points
Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
1 Level 1: Initial (ad hoc software processes)
2 Level 2: Repeatable (able to repeat earlier successes)
3 Level 3: Defined (management and engineering processes documented,
standardised, and integrated into organisation-wide software process) 4 Level 4: Managed (software process and products are quantitatively understood and controlled using detailed measures) 5 Level 5: Optimising (continuous process improvement is enabled by quantitative feedback from the process and testing innovative ideas)
Software Process Models
1 Linear Sequential Model (old fashioned but reasonable approach when requirements are well understood)
2 Prototyping Model (good first step when customer has a legitimate need, but is clueless about the details, developer needs to resist pressure to extend a rough prototype into a production product)
3 Rapid Application and Development (RAD) Model (makes heavy use of reusable software components with an extremely short development cycle) 4 Incremental Model (delivers software in small but usable pieces, each piece builds on pieces already delivered) 5 Spiral Model (couples iterative nature of prototyping with the controlled and systematic aspects of the linear sequential model)
6 Win-Win Spiral Model (eliciting software requirements defined through negotiation between customer and developer, where each party attempts to balance technical and business constraints)
7 Concurrent Development Model (similar to spiral model often used in development of client/server applications)
8 Component-Based Development (spiral model variation in which applications are built from pre-packaged software components called classes)
9 Formal Methods Model (rigorous mathematical notation used to specify, design, and verify computer-based systems)
10 Fourth Generation (4GT) Techniques (software tool is used to generate the source code for a software system from a high level specification representation)

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il-Proċess
Ħarsa ġenerali
1 Il-pjan direzzjonali għall-bini prodotti ta ‘softwer ta’ kwalità għolja huwa proċess softwer. 2 proċessi Software huma adattati għall-bżonnijiet ta ‘inġiniera tas-software u l-maniġers kif jintrabtu l-iżvilupp ta’ prodott tas-softwer. 3. Proċess softwer jipprovdi qafas għall-ġestjoni tal-attivitajiet li jistgħu
faċilment toħroġ ta ‘kontroll. 4 proġetti differenti jeħtieġu proċessi differenti ta ‘software 5 Il softwer engineerâ € ™ s prodotti ta’ ħidma (programmi, id-dokumentazzjoni, id-data)
huma prodotti bħala konsegwenzi tal-attivitajiet definiti mill-proċess ta ‘softwer
6. L-indikaturi aħjar ta ‘kif ukoll ta’ proċess ta ‘softwer ħadem huma l-kwalità, puntwalità, u l-vijabbiltà fit-tul tal-prodott tas-softwer li jirriżulta.
software Engineering
1 Software inġinerija jinkludi proċess, tekniki ta ‘ġestjoni, metodi tekniċi, u l-użu ta’ għodod.
Fażijiet Inġinerija Ġeneriċi Software
2 Fażi ta ‘definizzjoni â € “”jiffoka fuq dak li (l-inġinerija informazzjoni, ippjanar tal-proġett tas-softwer, l-analiżi rekwiżiti). 3. Fażi ta ‘żvilupp â € “”jiffoka fuq kif (disinn tas-software, ġenerazzjoni kodiċi, ittestjar tas-softwer). 4 fażi Appoġġ â € “”jiffoka fuq il-bidliet (manutenzjoni korrettiva, manutenzjoni adattivi, manutenzjoni perfective, manutenzjoni preventiva).
Software Inġinerija Attivitajiet Umbrella
1 Software traċċar u l-kontroll tal-proġett
2 reviżjonijiet tekniċi formali
assigurazzjoni tal-kwalità 3 Software
ġestjoni tal-konfigurazzjoni 4 Softwer
5 preparazzjoni Dokument u l-produzzjoni
ġestjoni 6 użu mill-ġdid
7 Kejl
ġestjoni 8 tar-riskju
Qafas Proċess komuni
1 Software ħidmiet xogħol ta ‘inġinerija
2 tragwardi Proġett
3 Prodotti Xogħol
4 punti garanzija tal-kwalità
Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Mudell Kapaċità tal maturità (CMM)
1 Livell 1: Inizjali (ad hoc proċessi softwer)
2 Livell 2: repetuti (kapaċi jirrepetu suċċessi preċedenti)
3 Livell 3: Hija ddefinita (proċessi ta ‘ġestjoni u ta’ inġinerija dokumentati,
standardizzati, u integrati fil-organizzazzjoni kollha proċess softwer) 4 Livell 4: Immexxi (proċess software u prodotti huma kwantitattivament mifhuma u kkontrollati bl-użu miżuri dettaljati) 5 Livell 5: L-ottimizzazzjoni (proċess ta ‘titjib kontinwu tkun mgħejuna minn rispons kwantitattivi mill-proċess u ttestjar innovattiv ideat)
Mudelli softwer Proċess
1 lineari sekwenzjali Mudell (approċċ dari iżda raġonevoli qodma meta ħtiġijiet huma mifhuma sew)
2 Prototipi Mudell (tajba ewwel pass meta l-klijent ikollu bżonn leġittimu, iżda huwa clueless dwar id-dettalji, iżviluppatur jeħtieġ li tirreżisti l-pressjoni biex testendi prototip mhux maħduma fi prodott ta ‘produzzjoni)
3 Applikazzjoni Rapida u l-Iżvilupp (RAD) Mudell (jagħmel użu żejjed ta ‘komponenti tas-softwer li jistgħu jerġgħu jintużaw bi ċiklu ta’ żvilupp estremament qasir) 4 inkrementali Mudell (tagħti softwer f’biċċiet żgħar iżda li jistgħu jintużaw, kull biċċa jibni fuq biċċiet diġà kkonsenjati) 5 spirali Mudell (koppji iterattivi natura tal prototipi l-aspetti kkontrollati u sistematiku tal-mudell sekwenzjali lineari)
6 Win-Win Spiral Mudell (jikkawżaw rekwiżiti tas-softwer definiti permezz ta ‘negozjati bejn klijent u żviluppatur, fejn kull parti tipprova tibbilanċja restrizzjonijiet tekniċi u tan-negozju)
7 istess ħin Iżvilupp Mudell (simili għall spirali mudell spiss użati fl-iżvilupp ta ‘applikazzjonijiet client / server)
8 Komponent Ibbażat Iżvilupp (mudell varjazzjoni spirali li fihom l-applikazzjonijiet huma mibnija minn komponenti pre-ippakkjati softwer imsejjaħ klassijiet)
9 formali Metodi Mudell (notazzjoni matematika rigoruża użati sabiex jiġu ddefiniti, id-disinn, u jivverifika sistemi bbażati fuq kompjuter)
10 Ir-raba ‘Ġenerazzjoni (4GT) Tekniki (għodda ta’ softwer hija użata biex tiġġenera l-kodiċi sors għal sistema ta ‘softwer minn rappreżentazzjoni speċifikazzjoni livell għoli)

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Software Metrics

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Software Metrics
Why Software Metrics?
Effective management of any process requires quantification, measurement and modelling.
Software metrics do provide a quantitative basis for the development and validation of models of the software development process.
Metrics can be used to improve productivity and quality.
Results with metrics improve the more the metric is used and fine tuned.
Software Crisis Problems
Inability to produce correct and reliable software within given time frames and a given budget.
Software development for larger projects is inherently a complex process.
There is no proper analytical description for software development.
Use of software metrics will help to improve the development process.
Case of Software Metrics
Many metrics have been created.
Some have not been properly tested.
It is difficult to identify which properties of

software will be measured.
Even though many theoretical metrics exist few
are really acceptable in practice.

When using metrics it is important to understand any underlying assumptions and the environment of application.
Prerequisites for using Software Metrics
One should have an idea of basic statistics and experimental design.
One should understand the common software development life cycle model.
Ideally one should have practical experience as a project team member.
Why? Because one has to know which methods are available and how to select the best metric. Possible measures of correlation, best fit etc are all possible.
Definition of a Software Metric
“A software metric deals with the measurement of the software product and the process by which it is developed.”
The software product needs to be seen as an abstract object that evolves from an initial requirement of the need to finish a software system. The software product includes the source and object code and documentation produced during the development.
Need for Software Metrics
Software development is a long and tedious process.
Accurate costing and project scheduling are needed.
Software management needs tangible measures.
Metrics used properly will help prevent software crisis.
Qualities of good Metrics
Simple, precise and definable.
Objective to the most possible extent.
Easily obtainable at a cheap cost.
Valid: i.e. the metric should measure exactly its intended purpose.
Robust: i.e. insignificant changes in the product should not affect it!!
Have data values that belong to appropriate measurement scales. E.g. months, weeks, effort in man days etc.
Classification of Software Metrics 1
Product Metrics: These are measures of the software product at any stage of its development, from requirements to installed system. Product metrics measure the complexity of the software design, final program size (source / object code). No of documentation pages produced.
E.g. COCOMO, LOC, KLOC, defects / KLOC etc
Classification of Software Metrics 2
Process Metrics: These are measures of the software development process, e.g. development time, avg. level of programming experience,
Further Classification
Primitive metrics.
Computed metrics. Subjective. Objective.
E.g. primitive subjective product metrics.
E.g. of computed metrics defects / KLOC

Measurement Scales for Software Metrics
Nominal data: One can measure the type of program by placing it in a category of some kind. E.g. DB, operating system. Here it is impossible to use arithmetic ranking. Only type can be compared!!! CATEGORIES.
Ordinal data: Here values like medium, high or low can be used. RANKINGS.
Interval: DIFFERENCES
Ratio: ABSOLUTE ZERO
Some Examples
E.g. Ratio scale. Program having 2000 LOC can be interpreted as twice as large as a program having 1000 LOC. WHAT ASSUMPTIONS ARE NEEDED?
ARE THESE IMPORTANT FOR THE METRIC TO BE SUCCESSFUL?
Product Metrics
Most work deals with the source code and its characteristics. Also the complexity of the code is something that can be examined!
Product Metrics
Size metrics.
LOC metrics.
Function points.
Complexity metrics.

Size Metrics
Try to quantify the software size. Examples are 1 LOC, 2 Function points. Try to measure the overall size of the
project.
Simple LOC method has certain
drawbacks.

LOC
Most widely used and simplest metric.
Looks simple.
Problems start when we try to consider blank

lines, comment lines, non executable statements, compound statements in a single line!, reused code in program code etc!!!
LOC ignores all the above mentioned features!
Halstead’s program length N can offer a better
measure!
Why do people keep using it???

Function Points
Created by Albrecht.
Compute the Function Points (FP). Based upon the number of features. Suitable for OO Programming.
Original FP
No
Function Point
Weight
1
External user inputs
4
2
Inquiries
4
3
Outputs
5
4
Master file
10

Each FP can be adjusted within a -/+ 35% for a specific project complexity.
Recent work with FP
Many different variants.
Consider even the complexity of the algorithms being used.
More complex than the original FP developed by Albrecht.
Can be derived from formal specifications.
COCOMO
Best known and most documented model.
Provides three levels of models: basic, intermediate, and detailed.
Boehm identifies three modes of product
development: Organic, semidetached, embedded.
This enables one to understand the level of difficulty of the project.
It is suggested that the detailed model will provide cost estimates that are within 20% of the actual values 70% of the time. Pred (0.20) = 0.70.
General Equations for COCOMO
E = A * S^b * m
a, b are constants determined for each mode and mode level;
S is the value of the source LOC;
m is a composite multiplier, determined from 15 cost driver attributes.
COCOMO
COCOMO cost estimation model is used by thousands of software project managers, and is based on a study of hundreds of software projects. Unlike other cost estimation models, COCOMO is an open model, so all of the details are published, including:
The underlying cost estimation equations.
Every assumption made in the model (e.g. “the project will enjoy good management”).
Every definition (e.g. the precise definition of the Product Design phase of a project).
The costs included in an estimate are explicitly stated (e.g. project managers are included, secretaries aren’t).
COCOMO
The fundamental calculation in the COCOMO model is the use of the Effort Equation to estimate the number of Person – Months required to develop a project.
The other COCOMO results, including the estimates for Requirements and Maintenance, are delivered from this quantity.
COCOMO / SLOC
Only Source lines that are DELIVERED as part of the product are included – test drivers and other support software must be excluded.
SOURCE lines are created by the project staff – code created by applications generators is excluded.
One SLOC is one logical line of code.
Declarations are counted as SLOC.
Comments are not counted as SLOC.
COCOMO / SLOC
The original COCOMO 81 model was defined in terms of Delivered Source Instructions, which are very similar to SLOC. The major difference between DSI and SLOC is that a single Source Line of Code may be several physical lines. For example, an “if-then-else” statement would be counted as one SLOC, but might be counted as several DSI.
WHY COCOMO II?
COCOMO II is better adapted to modern software life cycles. The original COCOMO model has been very successful, but it doesn’t apply to newer software development practices.
The original COCOMO was well suited to traditional practices.
COCOMO II
In the COCOMO model, some of the most important factors contributing to a project’s duration and cost are the Scale Drivers. You set the 5 Scale Drivers to describe your project; these Scale Drivers determine the exponent used in the Effort Equation.
The 5 Scale Drivers are:
Precedentedness.
Development Flexibility.
Architecture / Risk Resolution.
Team Cohesion.
Process Maturity.
COCOMO COST DRIVERS
Different COCOMO versions have varying amounts of cost drivers. – Most common / simple cost drivers assess the project, development environment, and team.
The cost drivers are multiplicative factors that determine the effort required to complete a software project.
E.g. if your project will develop software that controls an airplane’s flight, you would set the Required Software Reliability (RELY) cost driver to Very High.
That rating corresponds to an effort multiplier of 1.26, meaning that your project will require 26% more effort than a typical software project.
COCOMO EQUATION
The COCOMO II model makes its estimates of required effort (measured in Person-Months-PM) based primarily on your estimate of the software project’s size (as measured in thousands of SLOC, KSLOC)):
Effort = 2.94 * EAF * (KLSOC)E Where
EAF Is the Effort Adjustment Factor derived from the Cost Drivers.
E Is an exponent derived from the five Scale Drivers.
COCOMO II EXAMPLE
As an example, a project with all Nominal Cost Drivers and Scale Drivers would have an EAF of
1.00 and exponent, E, of 1.0997. Assuming that the project is projected to consist of 8,000 source lines of code, COCOMO II estimates that 28.9 Person-Months of effort is required to complete it:
Effort = 2.94 * EAF * (KLSOC)E
Effort = 2.94 * (1.0) * (8)1.0997 = 28.9 Person-Months
EAF – EFFORT ADJUSTMENT FACTOR
The Effort Adjustment Factor in the effort equation is simply the product of the effort multipliers corresponding to each of the cost drivers for your project.
For example, if your project is rated Very High for Complexity (effort multiplier of 1.34), and Low for Language & Tools Experience (effort multiplier of 1.09), and all of the other cost drivers are rated to be Nominal (effort multiplier of 1.00), the EAF is the product of 1.34 and 1.09.
Effort Adjustment Factor = EAF = 1.34 * 1.09 = 1.46
Effort = 2.94 * (1.46) * (8) = 42.3 Person-Months
COCOMO II Schedule Equation
The COCOMO II schedule equation predicts the number of months required to complete your software project. The duration of a project is based on the effort predicted by the software equation.
Duration = 3.67 * (Effort)SE
Where:
Effort Is the effort from the COCOMO II effort equation. SE Is the schedule equation exponent derived from the five Scale Drivers.
Continuing the example, and substituting the exponent of 0.3179 that is calculated from the scale drivers, yields an estimate of just over a year, and an average staffing of between 3 and 4 people:
Duration = 3.67 * (42.3)0.3179 = 12.1 months
Average staffing = (42.3 Person-Months) / (12.1 Months) = 3.5 people.
Cost Driver for Required Development Schedule
The COCOMO cost driver for Required Development Schedule (SCED) is unique, and requires a special explanation.
The SCED cost driver is used to account for the observation that a project developed on an accelerated schedule will require more effort than a project developed on its optimum schedule. A SCED rating of Very Low corresponds to an Effort Multiplier of 1.43 (in the COCOMO II.2000 model) and means that you intend to finish your project in 75% of the optimum schedule (as determined by a previous COCOMO estimate). Continuing the example used earlier, but assuming that SCED has a rating of Very Low, COCOMO produces these estimates:
Cost Driver for Required Development Schedule Example
Duration = 75% * 12.1 Months = 9.1 Months Effort Adjustment Factor = EAF = 1.34 * 1.09 * 1.43 = 2.09
Effort = 2.94 * (2.09) * (8)1.0997 = 60.4 Person-Months
Average staffing = (60.4 Person-Months) / (9.1 Months) = 6.7
people.
Notice that the calculation of duration isn’t based directly on the effort (number of Person-Months) – instead it’s based on the schedule that would have been required for the project assuming it had been developed on the nominal schedule. Remember that the SCED cost driver means “accelerated from the nominal schedule”.
Some Different variants of the COCOMO Model
Incremental COCOMO COCOMO_85 COCOMO_87 ADA_87
Complexity Metrics
Complexity Metrics are not same as size Metrics.
Complexity Metrics can be measured early in the software development life cycle.
Complexity Metrics are more complex than size metrics.
Cyclomatic Complexity
From a computer program its control flow graph G can be derived.
Each node and arc of the graph corresponds to a branch or decision point in the program.
Using v(G)=e-n+2, where e is the number of edges and n the number of nodes we can derive v(G) the Cyclomatic complexity.
McCabe suggests that v(G) can be used to measure program complexity. Hence it is a guide for program development and testing.
Knots
This concept is related to drawing the program control flow graph with a node for every statement or block of sequential statements. A knot is then defined as a necessary crossing of directional lines of the graph.
Cyclomatic Complexity does not account for this!!!
Information Flow Metric
Information flow in a program structure can be used as a metric for program complexity.
Basically one counts the number of information flows entering (fan-in) and exiting (fan-out) each procedure.
Procedure’s complexity is c = [procedure length]. [fan-in . fan-out]2
This is a very simple metric.
Empirical Models
Method relates to evaluating projects which are similar to past projects.
Assumes that cost of new project can be projected using historical data.
Waterfall life cycle.
25 x 7 structural matrix is used to allocate.
Software can be broken down into sub categories and classified E.g. control, I/O etc.
Statistical Models
Relations between software and persons can be determined.
Certain measures can be found to be in place.
Computations of derived models can be used.
Raleigh Model
Developed by Putnam.
Used to estimate the software development process.
Based on the assumption that personnel utilization during program development is based on a Raleigh-type curve.
Theory Based Models
Raleigh Model
y = Kte (-t2/2T2) / T2 y = no of persons on the project at any time, t; K = area under the Raleigh curve equal to the
total life cycle effort in person-years; T = development time (time of peak staffingrequirements)l.
Raleigh Model
S = CK (1/3) T (4/3)
S = no of source LOC delivered This equation relates the size of the software to the development time.
Halstead’s Product Metric
Most product metrics apply to only one particular aspect of the software product (compare McCabe and Information Flow Metric).
Halstead’s Metric tried to propose a unified set of metrics that apply to several aspects of programs and also the production effort.
These aspects are the I) Program vocabulary (n), II) length (N), and III) volume (V) metrics.
The total effort (E) and the development time
(T) are computed using the aspects mentioned.
Quality Metrics
A software quality metric can be defined as a measure of some intangible attribute of the software that is being developed or that has been developed.
Quality Metrics
Quality Characteristics for software are:
correctness, reliability, efficiency,
portability, maintainability.
Many of these characteristics often overlap and are hard to estimate. E.g. desired portability (desired) can result in lower efficiency (undesirable).
Most useful definitions of software quality metrics are difficult to devise and there is no single metric for this purpose.
This area lacks proper direction.
Quality Metrics – Areas
The areas of quality metrics that have been given the most importance are:
Program Correctness: measured by defect counts.
Software Reliability: computed from defect data, MTBF (mean time between failure).
Software Maintainability: measured by other metrics like complexity metrics, complexity of code etc.,
Quality Metrics: Defect
The number of defects in software should be readily derivable from the product itself, but there is no clear measure. The following are used:
Number of design changes.
Number of errors detected by the code
inspection.
Number of errors detected in the program tests.
Number of code changes required.

Project Organisation

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Project Organisation
A special organisation structure has to be set up if an IT project is to be successful.
Such a structure helps the organisation and control of project personnel.
It allows the most appropriate member to be assigned to each project role, and provides the right level of user and management involvement.
It brings together the various skills and interests involved in the development of an IT system.
It helps to ensure that the system is delivered to an agreed time, cost, functionality and quality.
It ensures adherence to standards which will result in better operable and maintainable systems.
The organisation structure should provide for:
1 Direction and control by senior management
2 Day-to-day management and control by middle management
2 Teams to undertake the product tasks identified
It should be supported by the following procedures and standards:
3 Definition of the responsibilities, objectives and tasks at each level
4 Definitions of the delegated authority at each level.
5 Established reporting and control procedure
6 Defined relationships with other related organisation structures
7 Standards for skills and experience for each level.
The PRINCE Management Organisation
The Project authority is the senior management Board which approves the process of accepting a recommendation to accept a project proposal, which appoints a Project Board and empowers it to undertake a project and deliver a completed system.
This board has as its executive arm a Project Support Office which is a central body whose main task is to encourage the efficient management of IT resources within the organisation.
It is responsible to the project approval authority when co-ordinating information re past present and future projects and their historic, current of forecasted actual performance.
It is also responsible to individual project managers for the support it offers individual project.
The PRINCE Management Organisation
Its main functions include:
8 Providing some or all of the Business and Technical Assurance co-ordinator
roles for the project
9 Liase with the User Assurance co-ordinator assigned to the project
10 Act as the Prince co-ordinator within the organisation
To provide a reference centre for IT project management and associated areas such as: 11 Estimating techniques 12 Productivity analysis 13 Standards and techniques 14 Methods and Tools 15 Quality Assurance
The PRINCE Management Organisation
Change Management
People management in a project environment
Matrix management
The Project Board
The Project Board consists of a group of Senior management who represent all major project interests namely the business, technical and user groups, who own the project and who are responsible for project integrity and for project success.
The main roles include:
16 Executive role which provides overall project guidance and assesses the project continuously from a business, financial and management point of view.
17 Senior User role representing users of the system or of the major subsystems which the project will implement 18 Senior Technical role representing those who have the responsibility for seeing through the technical development and implementation of the project.
Process of Approval and setting of a project
The following are the steps which take place before Project Initiation:
Feasibility Study (produces high level views of system and their justification on CBA, CSF or Value added) Identify and Describe the Project Deliverables (Top level analysis)
Identify all the Project Interests and Impacts
Allocate interests to roles in particular the User, Executive and Technical roles
Prepare the Job Descriptions which define the tasks and responsibilities to be undertaken by individuals
Select Project Board members on basis of skills and experiences
Prepare project brief including scope, boundaries, constraints, quality required, interfaces and authority
Approve the project and set up Project Board
Project Manager’s role
The project manager is entrusted with producing the required deliverables within the required standards of quality and performance.
Within the established constraints of time and cost, whilst ensuring that all business benefits indicated in the feasibility study are achieved.
His main activities include:
19 Ensuring that the business case is updated at the end of each stage and
presented to the Project Board for review
20 Plan the project and agree the plan with the project board
21 Liase with other projects to avoid duplication of effort
22 Prepare the project technical and resource plan with assistance from the
Project assurance team
23 Prepare Stage plans for each stage on a rolling basis
24 Define tasks and responsibilities for each Stage manager
Stage Managers Role
25 Contribute to the preparation of Stage plan
26 Define objectives, responsibilities and work plans for Stage Teams
27 Manage and provide guidance to Team leaders.
28 Monitor progress and resource usage of Stage Teams and initiate corrective
action where needed.
29 Ensure all Technical Exceptions are properly reported, evaluated and actioned.
30 Attend all stage assessments
31 Attend checkpoint meetings
32 Arrange all stage control meetings
33 Liase with PAT to ensure business, technical and user integrity
34 Prepare detailed plans as necessary and ensure that quality reviews and other quality control activities are undertaken.
Project Manager’s role
35 Monitor overall progress and use of resources, and initiate corrective action
when needed.
36 Advise the Project board of all deviations from plan at either stage or project
level and of any corrective action taken
37 Submit Exception plans where deviations cannot be remedied
38 Present regular Highlight reports to the Project Board, collating the checkpoint
reports provided by Stage managers
39 Monitor the results of all control meetings and liase with the Project
Assurance Team to assure the direction and integrity of all deliverables
40 Prepare a project evaluation report
41 Attend and advise all project related meetings
42 Agree technical and quality strategies with those who have responsibility.
Project Assurance responsibilities
The Business Assurance co-ordinator provides assurance for the project, business requirements and acts as a focus for administrative control. His main responsibilities include:
43 Monitor and report on the business issues of the project
44 Assist the project manager prepare the financial appraisal
45 Review financial forecasts and business benefits
46 Assist the project manager prepare the project resource plan as well as the
stage resource plans
47 Co-ordinate with the Technical co-ordinator regarding quality and risk
management
48 Match resources to the Technical plan
49 Co-ordinate Quality reviews and Technical exception activities
50 Collect actual and forecast resource information and monitor actual against
forecast results
51 Attend checkpoint meetings and help in the preparation of checkpoint and
highlight reports
52 Attend all assessment meetings
53 Helps stage and project manager to update stage, project and quality files.
Project Assurance responsibilities
The Technical Assurance co-ordinator provides technical assurance to the project Some of the main activities include:
54 Monitor and report on the technical integrity of the project and its deliverables 55 Help the project manager to prepare the Technical plan, matches it to the
resource plan, and do likewise with the stage technical plan. 56 In conjunction with BAC ensure that all aspects of plan are covered 57 Prepare together with the stage manager detailed stage technical plans. 58 Assist the project and stage managers in selection of appropriate technical
strategies and methods. 59 Advise on the appropriate technical quality criteria to adopt 60 Advise on the operational and maintenance aspects of the project 61 Ensure that technical standards and methods are used correctly 62 Monitor technical progress against plans 63 Attend all meetings and assessment as indicated for the BAC 64 Ensure proper assessment of technical exceptions and remediation action 65 Advice on technical aspects of Requests for change, and off-specs requests 66 Maintain a technical file 67 Provide guidance for standards and contribute to project evaluation reviews
Project Assurance responsibilities
The user assurance co-ordinator represents the user in the project activities. His main responsibilities include:
68 Monitor and report on user integrity of the project and deliverables 69 Assist the BAC and TAC in obtaining user benefits from system 70 Help the project manager to bring about user acceptance of changes in user
behaviour 71 Monitor and report on any user or owner problems with new system 72 Ensure that all user product requirements have been included including
training and manuals 73 Ensure that new user job designations, responsibilities and workflow requirements are properly described. 74 Ensure the user system acceptance criteria, acceptance and changeover plans and tests are defined 75 Attend all relevant meetings, quality reviews and assessments together with the TAC and BAC 76 Ensure that the impact of any changes are understood by users and owners

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