Preparing a layout

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Preparing a layout

There is no single acceptable and rigorous procedure by which to achieve our objectives that may vary from one situation to the next. Even in seemingly straightforward situations, where comparatively few items are to be arranged or re-arranged, a vast number of alternative acceptable solutions is available. As such intuition, experience and improvisation still figure prominently.

A suggested procedure is shown below, but this must not, of course, be regarded as definitive.

Information required before a layout can be planned:

a) type and quantity of labour, along with the company organisational structure.

b) Dimensional plan of the space to be laid out.

c) The volume of work to be produced both immediately and in the foreseeable future.

d) The operations to be undertaken, their descriptions, sequence and standard time.

e) The equipment needed to carry out operations.

f) The number of movements of material from one work centre to another during a representative working period.

g) The nature and volume of materials, partly finished, and finished items.

h) Availability of fire exits, drains, water. Communication systems etc.

i) ‘key’ operations.

Of the four basic layout patterns, namely, process layout, product layout, fixed-position layout and group layout, only process layout and product layout have undergone extensive mathematical analysis.

In process layout planning, the most common approach is to arrange departments or work centres in the most economical locations. In many facilities, optimal placement in the most economical location means MINIMISING MATERIAL HANDLING COSTS. It entails placing departments with large interdepartmental flows of parts or people next to one another. One can develop an initial schematic schema showing the sequence of departments through which parts will have to move. Departments with a heavy flow of materials or parts should be placed next to one another. Then one has to determine the cost of this layout by using the material-handling cost equation.

= nn

Min.Cost = Xij Cij

I=1 j=1

Where:

n = total number of work centres or departments

i, j = individual departments

Xij = number of loads moved from department I to department j

Cij = cost to move a load between department i and department j.

This formula assumes pick-up and set-down costs are constant.

Consequently by trial and error (or by a more sophisticated computer approach such as CRAFT) one can try to improve this layout to establish a reasonably good arrangement of departments. Finally one considers the space or size requirements of each department, i.e. arrange the departments to fit the shape of the building and its non-movable areas, such as loading dock, stairways etc. often this step involves making certain that a very noisy, dusty or fume-producing department is not adjacent to offices or other departments upon which it may have a negative effect.

Factory design

Before finalising the design of a factory, one must consider all the factors which will affect the plant. This is especially the case for new factories which should offer fewer complications. An important factor that must be taken into consideration when designing a factory is to allow room for future expansion, especially when planning each section of the factory. One should plan for services such as power, water, drainage, etc. to allow for expansion.

There are various factors influencing the design of buildings. The purpose of the factory building should be for the production process, and so the design must satisfy the needs of the operating system. Features to be taken into consideration include:

a) the elimination of hazards throughout the factory by proper design principles and materials used.

b) The fixing of height of roofs in relation to machinery, and the need for overhead cranes, conveyer systems, etc.

c) Structure of floors in order to support machinery.

d) Calculation of weight involved in supporting overhead conveyers.

e) Correct structure of walls and steel works, and support of gantry cranes.

f) Installation of services, such as waste disposal (shute, trolley, air blower systems, etc.) special lighting arrangements for certain processes, the need for ventilation, humidity control, fresh air intakes, etc.

In terms of type of building, one must consider the cost and availability of land, the ability to expand the building in the future, the size and shape of the plant and the construction costs.


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Preparazzjoni ta ‘tqassim

 

M’hemm l-ebda proċedura unika aċċettabbli u rigoruża li bih jistgħu jintlaħqu l-għanijiet tagħna li jistgħu jvarjaw minn sitwazzjoni waħda għall-oħra. Anke f’sitwazzjonijiet apparentement sempliċi, fejn komparattivament ftit punti għandhom jiġu rranġati jew rranġati mill-ġdid, għadd vast ta ‘soluzzjonijiet aċċettabbli alternattivi hija disponibbli. Bħala tali intwizzjoni, l-esperjenza u improvizzazzjoni għadhom prominenti.

 

Proċedura ssuġġerita hija murija hawn taħt, iżda dan ma jistax, naturalment, jiġu kkunsidrati bħala definittivi.

 

Informazzjoni meħtieġa qabel ma tqassim jistgħu jiġu ppjanati:

 

a) tip u kwantità ta ‘xogħol, flimkien ma’ l-istruttura organizzattiva tal-kumpanija.

b) pjan dimensjonali tal-ispazju li għandu jkun stabbiliti.

c) Il-volum ta ‘xogħol li jridu jiġu prodotti kemm immedjatament u fil-futur prevedibbli.

d) L-operazzjonijiet li għandhom jitwettqu, deskrizzjonijiet, tagħhom sekwenza u l-ħin standard.

e) It-tagħmir meħtieġ biex jitwettqu l-operazzjonijiet.

f) In-numru ta ‘movimenti ta’ materjal minn ċentru xogħol għall-ieħor matul perijodu ta ‘ħidma rappreżentattiv.

g) In-natura u l-volum ta ‘materjali, parzjalment lest, u oġġetti lesti.

h) Disponibbiltà ta ‘ħruġ tan-nar, drenaġġi, ilma. sistemi ta ‘komunikazzjoni, eċċ

i) â € ~keyâ € ™ operazzjonijiet.

 

Mill-erba ‘mudelli tqassim bażiku, jiġifieri, it-tqassim proċess, it-tqassim tal-prodott, it-tqassim-pożizzjoni fissa u l-grupp t-tqassim, biss il-proċess it-tqassim u t-tqassim tal-prodott jkunu għaddew analiżi matematika estensiva.

 

Fl-ippjanar tqassim proċess, l-aktar approċċ komuni huwa li jirranġa dipartimenti jew ċentri ta ‘xogħol fil-postijiet aktar ekonomiku. F’ħafna faċilitajiet, ottimali tqegħid fil-lokazzjoni aktar ekonomiku jfisser Imminimizzar ISPEJJEŻ trattament tal-materjal. Din tinvolvi tqegħid dipartimenti bi flussi bejn is-servizzi kbar ta ‘partijiet jew nies li jmiss ma’ xulxin. Wieħed jista tiżviluppa schema skematika inizjali turi s-sekwenza ta ‘dipartimenti li permezz tagħhom il-partijiet se jkollhom biex jiċċaqalqu. Dipartimenti bi fluss qawwi ta ‘materjali jew partijiet għandhom jitpoġġew ħdejn xulxin. Imbagħad wieħed irid jiddetermina l-ispiża ta ‘dan id-disinn billi tuża l-ekwazzjoni ispiża handling materjal.

 

= nn

Min.Cost = Xij CIJ

 

I = 1 j = 1

 

fejn:

 

n = numru totali ta ‘ċentri tax-xogħol jew dipartimenti

i, j = dipartimenti individwali

Xij = numru ta ‘tagħbijiet imċaqlaq minn dipartiment I tar-j dipartiment

CIJ = ispiża biex iċaqlaq tagħbija bejn dipartiment iu dipartiment j.

 

Din il-formula tassumi pick-up u stabbiliti down ispejjeż huma kostanti.

 

Konsegwentement bi prova u żball (jew minn approċċ kompjuter aktar sofistikat bħal CRAFT) wieħed jista jippruvaw itejbu dan id-disinn li tistabbilixxi arranġament raġonevolment tajjeb tad-dipartimenti. Fl-aħħarnett jitqiesu l-ħtiġijiet ta ‘spazju jew daqs ta’ kull dipartiment, jiġifieri jirranġa d-dipartimenti li jitwaħħal il-forma tal-bini u ż-żoni mhux jiċċaqilqu tiegħu, bħall-baċir tagħbija, turġien eċċ spiss dan il-pass tinvolvi l-għemil ċert li ħafna storbjużi, trab jew dipartiment li jipproduċu dħaħen mhux biswit uffiċċji jew dipartimenti oħra li fuqhom jista ‘jkollu effett negattiv.

 

disinn fabbrika

 

Qabel ma tiffinalizza l-disinn ta ‘fabbrika, wieħed għandu jikkunsidra l-fatturi kollha li jaffettwaw l-impjant. Dan huwa speċjalment il-każ għall-fabbriki ġodda li għandhom joffru inqas komplikazzjonijiet. Fattur importanti li għandu jittieħed in kunsiderazzjoni meta titfassal fabbrika huwa li jippermetti spazju għall-espansjoni futura, speċjalment meta jkun qed jippjana kull sezzjoni tal-fabbrika. Wieħed għandu pjan għal servizzi bħall-enerġija, l-ilma, drenaġġ, eċċ biex jippermettu għall-espansjoni.