Preparing a layout

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Pre­par­ing a lay­out

There is no single accept­able and rig­or­ous pro­ced­ure by which to achieve our object­ives that may vary from one situ­ation to the next. Even in seem­ingly straight­for­ward situ­ations, where com­par­at­ively few items are to be arranged or re-arranged, a vast num­ber of altern­at­ive accept­able solu­tions is avail­able. As such intu­ition, exper­i­ence and impro­visa­tion still fig­ure prom­in­ently.

A sug­ges­ted pro­ced­ure is shown below, but this must not, of course, be regarded as defin­it­ive.

Inform­a­tion required before a lay­out can be planned:

a) type and quant­ity of labour, along with the com­pany organ­isa­tion­al struc­ture.

b) Dimen­sion­al plan of the space to be laid out.

c) The volume of work to be pro­duced both imme­di­ately and in the fore­see­able future.

d) The oper­a­tions to be under­taken, their descrip­tions, sequence and stand­ard time.

e) The equip­ment needed to carry out oper­a­tions.

f) The num­ber of move­ments of mater­i­al from one work centre to another dur­ing a rep­res­ent­at­ive work­ing peri­od.

g) The nature and volume of mater­i­als, partly fin­ished, and fin­ished items.

h) Avail­ab­il­ity of fire exits, drains, water. Com­mu­nic­a­tion sys­tems etc.

i) ‘key’ oper­a­tions.

Of the four basic lay­out pat­terns, namely, pro­cess lay­out, pro­duct lay­out, fixed-pos­i­tion lay­out and group lay­out, only pro­cess lay­out and pro­duct lay­out have under­gone extens­ive math­em­at­ic­al ana­lys­is.

In pro­cess lay­out plan­ning, the most com­mon approach is to arrange depart­ments or work centres in the most eco­nom­ic­al loc­a­tions. In many facil­it­ies, optim­al place­ment in the most eco­nom­ic­al loc­a­tion means MINIMISING MATERIAL HANDLING COSTS. It entails pla­cing depart­ments with large inter­de­part­ment­al flows of parts or people next to one another. One can develop an ini­tial schem­at­ic schema show­ing the sequence of depart­ments through which parts will have to move. Depart­ments with a heavy flow of mater­i­als or parts should be placed next to one another. Then one has to determ­ine the cost of this lay­out by using the mater­i­al-hand­ling cost equa­tion.

= nn

Min.Cost = Xij Cij

I=1 j=1

Where:

n = total num­ber of work centres or depart­ments

i, j = indi­vidu­al depart­ments

Xij = num­ber of loads moved from depart­ment I to depart­ment j

Cij = cost to move a load between depart­ment i and depart­ment j.

This for­mu­la assumes pick-up and set-down costs are con­stant.

Con­sequently by tri­al and error (or by a more soph­ist­ic­ated com­puter approach such as CRAFT) one can try to improve this lay­out to estab­lish a reas­on­ably good arrange­ment of depart­ments. Finally one con­siders the space or size require­ments of each depart­ment, i.e. arrange the depart­ments to fit the shape of the build­ing and its non-mov­able areas, such as load­ing dock, stair­ways etc. often this step involves mak­ing cer­tain that a very noisy, dusty or fume-pro­du­cing depart­ment is not adja­cent to offices or oth­er depart­ments upon which it may have a neg­at­ive effect.

Fact­ory design

Before final­ising the design of a fact­ory, one must con­sider all the factors which will affect the plant. This is espe­cially the case for new factor­ies which should offer few­er com­plic­a­tions. An import­ant factor that must be taken into con­sid­er­a­tion when design­ing a fact­ory is to allow room for future expan­sion, espe­cially when plan­ning each sec­tion of the fact­ory. One should plan for ser­vices such as power, water, drain­age, etc. to allow for expan­sion.

There are vari­ous factors influ­en­cing the design of build­ings. The pur­pose of the fact­ory build­ing should be for the pro­duc­tion pro­cess, and so the design must sat­is­fy the needs of the oper­at­ing sys­tem. Fea­tures to be taken into con­sid­er­a­tion include:

a) the elim­in­a­tion of haz­ards through­out the fact­ory by prop­er design prin­ciples and mater­i­als used.

b) The fix­ing of height of roofs in rela­tion to machinery, and the need for over­head cranes, con­vey­er sys­tems, etc.

c) Struc­ture of floors in order to sup­port machinery.

d) Cal­cu­la­tion of weight involved in sup­port­ing over­head con­vey­ers.

e) Cor­rect struc­ture of walls and steel works, and sup­port of gantry cranes.

f) Install­a­tion of ser­vices, such as waste dis­pos­al (shute, trol­ley, air blower sys­tems, etc.) spe­cial light­ing arrange­ments for cer­tain pro­cesses, the need for vent­il­a­tion, humid­ity con­trol, fresh air intakes, etc.

In terms of type of build­ing, one must con­sider the cost and avail­ab­il­ity of land, the abil­ity to expand the build­ing in the future, the size and shape of the plant and the con­struc­tion costs.


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Pre­parazz­joni ta tqassim

 

M’hemm l-ebda proċed­ura unika aċċet­tab­bli u rigor­uża li bih jist­għu jint­laħqu l-għan­iji­et tagħna li jist­għu jvar­jaw minn sit­wazz­joni waħda għall-oħra. Anke f’sitwazzjonijiet appar­ente­ment sem­pliċi, fejn kom­par­at­tiva­ment ftit punti għand­hom jiġu rranġati jew rranġati mill-ġdid, għadd vast ta soluzz­jon­iji­et aċċet­tab­bli altern­at­tivi hija dispon­ib­bli. Bħala tali intwizz­joni, l-esper­jen­za u improvizza­zz­joni għad­hom prom­in­enti.

 

Proċed­ura ssuġġer­ita hija mur­i­ja hawn taħt, iżda dan ma jistax, nat­ur­al­ment, jiġu kkun­sidrati bħala definit­tivi.

 

Inform­azz­joni meħtieġa qabel ma tqassim jist­għu jiġu ppjanati:

 

a) tip u kwantità ta xogħol, flimki­en ma’ l-istrut­tura organizzat­tiva tal-kumpan­i­ja.

b) pjan dimens­jon­ali tal-ispazju li għan­du jkun stabbil­iti.

c) Il-volum ta xogħol li jridu jiġu pro­dot­ti kemm immed­jata­ment u fil-futur pre­ved­ib­bli.

d) L-operazz­jon­iji­et li għand­hom jit­wettqu, deskrizz­jon­iji­et, tagħhom sek­wen­za u l-ħin stand­ard.

e) It-tagħmir meħtieġ biex jit­wettqu l-operazz­jon­iji­et.

f) In-num­ru ta movi­menti ta’ mater­jal minn ċen­tru xogħol għall-ieħor mat­ul per­i­jodu ta ħid­ma rap­preżent­at­tiv.

g) In-nat­ural-volum ta mater­jali, par­z­jalment lest, u oġġet­ti lesti.

h) Dispon­ib­biltà ta ħruġ tan-nar, dren­aġġi, ilma. sis­temi ta komunikazz­joni, eċċ

i) â € ~keyâ € ™ operazz­jon­iji­et.

 

Mill-erba mudel­li tqassim bażiku, jiġi­fieri, it-tqassim proċess, it-tqassim tal-pro­dott, it-tqassim-pożizz­joni fis­sa u l-grupp t-tqassim, biss il-proċess it-tqassimt-tqassim tal-pro­dott jkunu għad­dew analiżi matem­atika esten­s­iva.

 

Fl-ippjanar tqassim proċess, l-aktar approċċ komuni huwa li jir­ranġa dipar­ti­menti jew ċentri ta xogħol fil-postiji­et aktar eko­nomiku. F’ħafna faċil­it­aji­et, ottim­ali tqegħid fil-lokazz­joni aktar eko­nomiku jfis­ser Immin­imiz­zar ISPEJJEŻ trat­tament tal-mater­jal. Din tin­volvi tqegħid dipar­ti­menti bi flussi bejn is-ser­vizzi kbar ta partiji­et jew nies li jmiss ma’ xulxin. Wieħed jista tiżvi­lup­pa schema skematika iniz­jali turi s-sek­wen­za ta dipar­ti­menti li per­mezz tagħhom il-partiji­et se jkoll­hom biex jiċċaqalqu. Dipar­ti­menti bi fluss qawwi ta mater­jali jew partiji­et għand­hom jit­poġġew ħde­jn xulxin. Imbagħad wieħed irid jid­de­termina l-ispiża ta dan id-disinn bil­li tuża l-ekwazz­joni ispiża hand­ling mater­jal.

 

= nn

Min.Cost = Xij CIJ

 

I = 1 j = 1

 

fejn:

 

n = num­ru totali ta ċentri tax-xogħol jew dipar­ti­menti

i, j = dipar­ti­menti indi­vid­wali

Xij = num­ru ta tagħbiji­et imċaqlaq minn dipar­ti­ment I tar-j dipar­ti­ment

CIJ = ispiża biex iċaqlaq tagħbi­ja bejn dipar­ti­ment iu dipar­ti­ment j.

 

Din il-for­mu­la tas­sumi pick-up u stabbil­iti down ispe­jjeż huma kostanti.

 

Kon­seg­wente­ment bi prova u żball (jew minn approċċ kom­pjuter aktar sofistikat bħal CRAFT) wieħed jista jip­pruvaw ite­jbu dan id-disinn li tistabbilixxi arranġa­ment raġone­vol­ment tajjeb tad-dipar­ti­menti. Fl-aħħar­nett jitqiesu l-ħtiġiji­et ta spazju jew daqs ta’ kull dipar­ti­ment, jiġi­fieri jir­ranġa d-dipar­ti­menti li jit­waħħal il-forma tal-bini u ż-żoni mhux jiċċaqilqu tiegħu, bħall-baċir tagħbi­ja, turġi­en eċċ spiss dan il-pass tin­volvi l-għemil ċert li ħafna stor­b­jużi, trab jew dipar­ti­ment li jip­produċu dħaħen mhux biswit uffiċċji jew dipar­ti­menti oħra li fuqhom jista jkollu effett negat­tiv.

 

disinn fab­brika

 

Qabel ma tiffi­nalizza l-disinn ta fab­brika, wieħed għan­du jikkun­sidra l-fat­turi koll­ha li jaf­fettwaw l-imp­jant. Dan huwa speċ­jalment il-każ għall-fab­briki ġod­da li għand­hom jof­fru inqas kom­p­likazz­jon­iji­et. Fat­tur import­anti li għan­du jit­tieħed in kun­sid­erazz­joni meta tit­fas­sal fab­brika huwa li jip­per­met­ti spazju għall-espans­joni futura, speċ­jalment meta jkun qed jip­pjana kull sezz­joni tal-fab­brika. Wieħed għan­du pjan għal ser­vizzi bħall-enerġija, l-ilma, dren­aġġ, eċċ biex jip­per­mettu għall-espans­joni.