UML (Unified Modelling Language)

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Sup­port trans­la­tion: http://amzn.to/1Z7d5oc
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UML (Uni­fied Mod­el­ling Lan­guage)
Intro­duc­tion 1
1 In the OO there are stand­ards but still is not well bounded and research is incom­plete
2 Key bene­fits are reusab­il­ity and extens­ib­il­ity
3 Pre-writ­ten key com­pon­ents can be used
4 OO meth­ods. Not only OO pro­gram­ming, but design, require­ment ana­lys­is, busi­ness mod­el­ling, sys­tem design, data­base design and pro­ject man­age­ment
Data Driv­en Mod­el
OO Approach
Abstrac­tion
Meth­ods
Intro­duc­tion 2
1 Few sys­tems live up to the “pure con­cept” of OO
2 Always ask how is a sys­tem OO?
3 E.g. even Apple, Win­dows try to make use of OO con­cepts in the WIMP (Win­dows, Icons, Menus, and Point­ers). This is vis­ible in the GUI and GUI style of pro­gram­ming
OO Influ­ences
1 Dis­trib­uted IS (using CORBA, COM, DCOM, ACTIVE X, JAVA Beans)
2 A.I.
3 Web Based Pro­gram­ming
4 OMG stand­ard­iz­a­tion
Objects
1 Basic units of con­struc­tion used for sys­tem visu­al­isa­tion, design,
con­cep­tu­al­isa­tion and or pro­gram­ming
2 An object is an instance of a class type E.g. object John Smith is an Instance of class per­son
3 Objects have attrib­utes like size, state, weight, pos­i­tion, col­our
4 Objects can per­form “services”. These are called oper­a­tions or meth­ods
5 Rules spe­cify­ing how object fea­tures are related are called Invari­ants
Poly­morph­ism
1 Abil­ity of objects to use the same expres­sion to denote dif­fer­ent oper­a­tions
2 I.e. A meth­od oper­a­tion of an object can be “overridden” and called by a sub­class derived object to pro­duce an entirely dif­fer­ent res­ult!!!
Abstrac­tion
1. The key behind Soft­ware Engin­eer­ing is the abil­ity to rep­res­ent some­thing without get­ting excess­ively involved in the details that are not so essen­tial. Objects should abstract both details and pro­cesses.
Abstract Classes – Have no instances
Con­crete Classes – Have Instances.
Basic OO Meth­od­o­logy Prin­ciples I
1 Iden­tity: Each object has a â€œunique” iden­tity but dis­tin­guishes the object through­out it’s life
2 Encap­su­la­tion: Data struc­tures and meth­od imple­ment­a­tion details of an object are hid­den from oth­er objects in the sys­tem (This is sim­il­ar to the ADT con­cepts). Some object meth­ods can also be hid­den by being declared as Private etc.

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Appoġġ traduzz­joni: http://amzn.to/1Z7d5oc
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UML (Uni­fied Mod­el­ling Lan­guage)
introduzz­joni 1
1 Fil-OO hemm stand­ards iżda xorta mhux imdawwar tajjeb u r-riċerka mhijiex kom­pluta
2-bene­fiċċji ewlen­in huma użu mill-ġdid u estens­joni
3 kom­pon­enti ewlen­in Pre-miktub jist­għu jin­tużaw
4 met­odi OO. Mhux biss l-ippro­gram­mar OO, iżda disinn, analiżi tar-rek­wiżiti, l-immudel­lar tan-negozju, disinn tas-sis­tema, disinn data­base u ġest­joni tal-proġett
Dejta Mudell Immexxi­ja
Approċċ OO
estrazz­joni
met­odi
introduzz­joni 2
1 Sis­temi Ftit jgħixu sa l-€ Con­cepta œpure â € ta OO
2. Dejjem staqsi kemm hija OO sis­tema?
3 E.ż. anke Apple, Win­dows jip­pruvaw jagħm­lu użu ta kun­ċet­ti OO fil-wimp (Win­dows, Ikoni, menus, u point­ers). Dan huwa viżib­bli fil-GUI u GUI stil ta pro­gram­mar
Influwen­zi OO
1 Imqas­sam IS (bl-użu CORBA, COM, DCOM, X Attiva, Fażola JAVA)
2 A.I.
3. Web Pro­gram­mazz­joni Ibbażat
4 OMG istand­ardizza­zz­joni
oġġet­ti
1 unitaji­et bażiċi ta kostruzz­joni użati għall-viżwalizza­zz­joni, l-iddis­in­jar,
konċettwalizza­zz­joni u jew l-ippro­gram­mar
2 Oġġett huwa każ ta tip ta’ klassi E.ż. oġġett John Smith huwa Istan­za ta per­suna klassi
3 Oġġet­ti jkoll­hom attributi bħal daqs, l-istat, il-piż, il-pożizz­joni, kulur
4 Oġġet­ti jist­għu jwettqu œser­vicesâ € â €. Dawn huma mse­jħa operazz­jon­iji­et jew met­odi
5 Regoli jis­peċi­fikaw kif il-kar­at­ter­istiċi oġġett huma relata­ti huma mse­jħa Invari­ants
polimor­fiżmu
1 Abbiltà ta oġġet­ti li jużaw l-istess espress­joni li tid­denota operazz­jon­iji­et dif­fer­enti
2 jiġi­fieri Operazz­joni Met­odu ta oġġett jista’ jkun € œover­rid­denâ € u sej­jaħ minn oġġett derivata sub­klassi li jip­produċu riżultat total­ment dif­fer­enti !!!
estrazz­joni
1. Iċ-ċavetta wara Soft­ware Engin­eer­ing hija l-abbiltà li jir­rappreżentaw xi ħaġa mingħajr ma jkollna żże­jjed invol­uti fid-dettalji li m’humiex daqshekk essen­zjali. Oġġet­ti għand­hom astrat­ti kemm dettalji u proċessi.
Klassiji­et astrat­ti â € ““Have ebda każ
Klassiji­et konkreti â € ““Have Każiji­et.
Bażiku OO Met­o­d­o­loġi­ja Prinċipji I
1 Iden­tità: Kull oġġett għan­du â € œuniqueâ iden­tità € iżda tid­dis­t­ing­wi l-oġġett mat­ul ita € ™ s ħaj­ja
2 inkapsu­la­ment: Strut­turi tad-Data u dettalji ta imple­mentazz­joni met­odu ta’ oġġett huma moħbi­ja minn oġġet­ti oħra fis-sis­tema (Dan huwa simili għall-kun­ċet­ti ADT). Xi met­odi oġġett jista wkoll tiġi moħbi­ja bil­li jkunu ddikjar­ati li eċċ Privat

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Onder­steun­ing ver­tal­ing: http://amzn.to/1Z7d5oc
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UML (Uni­fied Mod­el­ling Lan­guage)
Inleiding 1
1 In die OO daar standaarde, maar nog steeds nie goed begrens en navors­ing is onvolledig
2 Belan­grikste voor­dele is herbruikbaar en rek­baar­heid
3 Pre-geskrewe sleutelkom­pon­en­te kan gebruik word
4 OO met­odes. Nie net OO pro­gram­mer­ing, maar ont­werp, vereiste ontled­ing, besigheid mod­el, stelsel ont­werp, data­bas­isont­werp en pro­jek­be­stuur
Data-gedrewe mod­el
OO Ben­a­der­ing
ont­trekking
met­odes
Inleiding 2
1 Min stelsels leef tot die â € œpure con­ceptâ € van OO
2 Altyd vra hoe n stelsel OO?
3 Bv selfs Apple, Win­dows pro­beer om die gebruik van OO Proewe maak in die wimp (Win­dows, ikone, spyskaarte, en pen­ne). Dit is sig­baar in die GUI en GUI styl van pro­gram­mer­ing
OO Invloede
1 Dis­trib­uted IS (met behulp van CORBA, COM, DCOM, Act­ive X, Java Beans)
2 A.I.
3 Web gebaseer­de pro­gram­meer­taal
4 OMG standaard­iser­ing
voor­wer­pe
1 Basiese een­hede van die kon­struk­sie gebruik word vir stelsel visu­al­iser­ing, ont­werp,
kon­sep­tu­al­iser­ing en of pro­gram­mer­ing
2 n voor­werp is n geval van n klas tipe Bv voor­werp John Smith is n geval van klas per­soon
3 voor­wer­pe het eienskappe soos groot­te, toes­t­and, gewig, pos­is­ie, kleur
4 voor­wer­pe kan â € œser­vicesâ € voer. Hierdie is oper­asies of met­odes gen­oem
5 Reëls spesi­fiseer hoe voor­werp eienskappe ver­want is ger­oep Invari­anten
polimor­fis­me
1 Die ver­moë van voor­wer­pe met die­s­elf­de uit­drukking gebruik om ver­skil­lende bedry­wighede dui
2 D.w.s. N Met­ode werking van n voor­werp kan â € œover­rid­denâ € en n ber­oep deur n sub­klas afgelei voor­werp om n heel ander res­ultaat te prod­useer !!!
ont­trekking
1. Die sleutel agter Soft­ware Engin­eer­ing is die ver­moë om iets ver­teen­woor­dig son­der om oorm­atig bet­rokke in die beson­der­hede wat nie so nood­saak­lik. Voor­wer­pe moet abstrak­te sow­el beson­der­hede en prosesse.
Abstract Klasse â € ““Moenie gevalle
Beton Klasse â € ““is gevalle.
Basiese OO met­odiek­be­gin­sels ek
1 Iden­tity: Elke voor­werp het n â € œuniqueâ € iden­titeit, maar onder­skei die voor­werp reg­deur ita € ™ s lewe
2 Enkapsuler­ing: Data­struk­ture en met­ode imple­men­ter­ing beson­der­hede van n voor­werp is ver­borge vir ander voor­wer­pe in die stelsel (Dit is soort­gelyk aan die ADT kon­septe). Som­mi­ge voor­werp met­odes kan ook weggesteek word deur as Privaat ens verk­laar

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