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1 Network intensive 2 High concurrency 3 Unpredictable user loads 4 Performance (fast delivery) 5 High availability 6 Data driven 7 Content sensitive 8 Continuous evolution 9 Immediacy 10 Security 11 Aesthetics
1 Informational (read only content provided with simple navigation)
2 Downloads (user downloads information from server)
3 Customizable (user customizes content to specific needs)
4 Interaction (community of users communicate using chat rooms, bulletin boards, or instant messaging)
5 User input (users complete
makes request fulfilled by
WebApp — places an order)
8 Portal (application directs users to other web content or services)
9 Database access (user queries a large database and extracts information)
10 Data warehousing (user queries large collection of databases and extracts information)
WebApp Enabling Technologies
2 Security (encryption,
3 Internet standards (HTML, XML, SGML)
WebApp Development Process Characteristics
1 WebApps are often delivered incrementally 2 Changes occur frequently 3 Timelines are short
1 Customer communication
. Business analysis — defines business and organizational context for WebApp
. Formulation — involves stakeholders in gathering information needed to describe WebApp requirements
. Plan consisting of task definition and timeline for the WebApp increment being developed
. Rapid analysis and design modeling tasks are adapted to WebApp
. Models define the requirements and define the WebApp needed to satisfy them
. WebE tools used to construct WebApp from model
. Constructed increment is subjected to rapid tests to ensure errors (i.e., content, architecture, interface, navigation)
5 Delivery and evaluation
. WebApp configured for its operational environment and delivered to
. Users evaluate WebApp in their environment and provide feedback to the development team
. Increment is modified as required
WebE Analysis and Design Questions 1 How important is a Web site homepage? 2 What is the most effective page layout? 3 What media applications have the most impact?
4 How much work can we expect the user to do when searching for information?
5 How important are navigational aids in a complex WebApp?
6 How complex can input forms
be without irritating the user?
7 How important are search capabilities to users?
8 Will the WebApp be designed to be accessible to users with disabilities?
WebE Task Set
1 Customer Communication (Analysis/Formulation)
. Identify business stakeholders
. Formulate business context
. Define key business goals and objectives
. Define information and
. Identify the problem
. Gather requirements 2 WebE Planning
. Define development strategy
. Assess risks
. Define development schedule
. Establish metrics for content management and change control
3 WebE Modeling
. Refine content classes
. Identify content relationships
. Refine user tasks
. Identify computational
. Identify database
. Refine interface requirements
. Design the WebApp
. Design the interface
. Design the navigational scheme
. Design appropriate security and privacy mechanisms
. Review the design
4 WebE Construction
. Build or acquire the content and integrate it into WebAPP architecture
. Establish navigational
. Implement computational functions
. Address configuration issues
. Test all WebApp components
. Address configuration issues
. Test all WebApp components (content and function)
. Test navigation
. Test usability
. Test security and performance
. Test increment for different configurations
5 WebE Delivery and evaluation
. Deliver WebApp increment to representative
. Make modifications to WebApp increment as required
Web Engineering Best Practices
. Take time to understand the business needs and product objectives, even if WebApp details are vague.
. Describe how users will interact with the WebApp using a
. Develop a brief project plan.
. Spend time modeling what you are going to build.
. Review models for consistency and quality.
. Use tools and technology that enable you to construct the system with as many reusable components as possible.
. Don’t rely on users to debug the WebApp, design comprehensive tests and execute them before releasing the system.
WebE Formulation Activities
1 Identify business need for WebApp
2 Work with stakeholders to describe WebApp objectives
3 Develop user profile(s)
4 Define major features and functions
5 Develop an integrated
statement of scope
6 Establish requirements gathering activity that leads to development of analysis model
1 What is the main motivation (business Need) for the WebApp?
2 What are the objectives
that the WebApp must
3 Who will use the WebApp?
4 What are the WebApp’s informational goals (user’s intention for using the content)?
5 What are the applicative
goals (ability to perform
tasks within the WebApp)
for the WebApp?
Requirements Gathering Goals
1 Identify content requirements
2 Identify functional requirements
3 Define interaction scenarios for each user class
1 Ask stakeholders to define user categories and develop descriptions for each
2 Communicate with stakeholders to define basic
3 Analyaze information gathered and use information to
1 What is the user’s overall objective when using the WebApp?
2 What is the user’s background and sophistication relative to the content and functionality of the WebApp?
3 What generic WebApp characteristics does the user like or dislike?
Stakeholder Communication Options
1 Traditional focus groups -trained moderator meets with group of representative
2 Electronic focus groups —
3 Iterative surveys — series of focused surveys sent to representative
4 Exploratory surveys —
Analyzing Information Gathered
1 Create a stack of cards for the identified content objects, operations applied to objects, WebApp functions, and nonfunctional requirements
2 Shuffle the cards to
randomize their order
3 Give the shuffled cards to
representative users and ask them to arrange cards into groupings that represent how they would like content and functionality organized in the WebApp
4 WebE team examines the arrangements from several users and seeks to identify common groupings from the various arrangements
5 Labels are assigned to these groupings by the WebE team
6 Users are asked to sort cards again using these labels (the intent is to see the labels are communicating the location of information and functionality)
7 Process of labeling and
sorting continues until
consensus is obtained
necessary to create an
effective analysis model
WebE Analysis Types
1 Content analysis — content
provided by WebApp is
identified (data modeling
techniques may be helpful)
2 Interaction analysis —